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3L Acquisition models

DMITRENKO NATALIA

INDEX

3L Acquisition models

01: TPM

03: L2 status

04: CEM

Bibliography

02: The privileged L1 transfer hypothesis

3L Acquisition models

the privileged L1 transfer hypothesis

the L2 status factor model (L2 status)

1

2

the cumulative enhancement model (CEM)

the typological primacy model (TPM)

3

4

The TPM

The TPM (Rothman, 2011) is based on typological proximity of languages and proposes that either L1 or L2 can serve as the initial state for L3 acquisition. The language that is typologically closest to the L3 will form the linguistic base for its learning and facilitate its acquisition.

The typological primacy model

The TPM-based methodology to study transfer at the initial stage of L3 acquisition was first introduced by Rothman and Cabrelli Amaro (2010; Rothman, 2010). One of their studies examined L1-English/L2-Spanish learners of L3-Brazilian Portuguese (BP) for word order and relative clause usage. The linguistic targets of the experiment structurally patterned with the learners’ L1, English.Meanwhile, the participants provided Spanish-like language in their L3-BP. The experimentshowed that at the initial stage the learners transferred their Spanish linguistic system into their L3-BP even in the situation when their L1 English would have provided more similar patterns. The study gave evidence that typological similarity between languages facilitated transfer at the initial stage of L3 acquisition.

The L1 Transfer Model

The L1 Transfer Model (Bley-Vroman, 2009; Hermas, 2010) insists on the prevailing status of L1 in L3 acquisition and proposes that any learning of a new language is facilitated by transfer fromL1. This theory is refuted by experimental data that shows evidence of L2 transfer in most of the cases of transfer into L3 (Flynn, Foley, & Vinnitskaya, 2004; Rothman & Cabrelli Amaro, 2010; Montrul, Dias, and Santos, 2011; Rothman, 2011; García-Mayo & Rothman, 2012). The TPM scholars provide account for the L1 transfer data in terms of typological similarity.

the L2 Status Factor Model

The second theory opposed to the TPM is the L2 Status Factor Model (Falk & Bardel, 2011).This theory insists on the priority of L2 in front of L1 in L3 acquisition. The theory is built on the assumption of cognitive similarities between two non-native linguistic systems (Falk & Bardel, 2011). The point of contact of this theory and the TPM is in stating that transfer is based on similarity. However, the TPM bases itself on typological similarity while the L2 Status Factor Model draws on the notion that the L2 and L3 are cognitively similar. Meanwhile, the L2 Status Factor ignores the evidence for L1 transfer reported by other scholars in L3 acquisition (BleyVroman, 2009; Hermas, 2010). Thus, the L2 Status Factor Model does not take into consideration the whole combination of the three languages being acquired.

The third approach to L3 acquisition, the CEM, has much in common with the TPM. This model proposes that L3 acquisition is a cumulative process and the two previously learnt languages shape the path for L3 acquisition (Flynn, Foley, & Vinnitskaya, 2004). In this respect the CEM goes hand in hand with the TPM as it does not advocate a privileged status of either L1 or L2 for transfer into L3. What makes the CEM different from the TPM is the claim the language that is typologically distant can be a source of transfer.

The cumulative enhancement model

CEM

The initial state of L3 acquisition

According to the TPM, the same as to the CEM, any newly acquired language is never acquiredseparately. A set of languages acquired by a human brain during lifespan forms a system which is never stable as every new linguistic pattern acquired by a learner changes the whole system and boosts cross-linguistic interaction within it. The changes within the system can be facilitative and non-facilitative, additive and subtractive, the processes overlooked by the CEM.

CEM

TPM

The results of experimental studies provide evidence for the key points of the TPM – as a theory of the initial state of L3 acquisition.

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Studies investigating beyond the initial stage of L3 acquisition brought back the key assumption of the CEM: All previous linguistic experience is equally available during L3 acquisition.The first studies of intermediate L3 learners (Foote, 2009; Montrul, Dias, and Santos, 2011) specify the predictions by the TPM and provide evidence that the pattern of transfer among the languages may change with the learners’ growth in L3 proficiency. At the intermediate level of proficiency selectivity in transfer does not go to one of the linguistic systems, the L1 or L2. The parser seeks similarity to a particular linguistic phenomenon across the two previously learnt languages. Norwegian-Russian bilinguals demonstrate facilitative effects of Russian in acquisition of L3 English. Notice that Russian is typologically more distant from English than Norwegian. This result challenges the TPM 😭😭😭 and supports the initial assumption by the CEM.

Beyond the initial state of L3 acquisition

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3L Acquisition models

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

_________ is based on typological proximity of languages and proposes that either L1 or L2 can serve as the initial state for L3 acquisition.

question 1/10

CEM

TPM

COOL

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The L1 Transfer Model insists on the prevailing status of L2 in L3 acquisition and proposes that any learning of a new language is facilitated by transfer from L2.

question 2/10

True

False

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The L1 Transfer Model is refuted by experimental data that shows evidence of L2 transfer in most of the cases of transfer into L3. The TPM scholars provide account for the L1 transfer data in terms of typological similarity.

1uestion 3/10

True

False

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The L2 Status Factor Model theory is built on the assumption of _________ similarities between two non-native linguistic systems.

question 4/10

lexical

grammatical

cognitive

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The L2 Status Factor Model and the TPM have a common feature, which is is stating that transfer is based on _______.

question 5/10

difference

similarity

cuteness

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The L2 Status Factor Model does not take into consideration the whole combination of the three languages being acquired.

question 6/10

False

True

Oops! I don't know! 😭

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The CEM has much in common with the TPM. This model advocates a privileged status of either L1 or L2 for transfer into L3.

question 7/10

True

False

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

According to the TPM, the same as to the CEM, any newly acquired language is never acquired _______.

question 8/10

separately

easily

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

The key assumption of the CEM is that all previous linguistic experience is equally available during L3 acquisition.

question 9/10

Sorry, I forgot! 😭😭😭

False

True

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

OPPONENT’STURN

YOURTURN

At the intermediate level of proficiency selectivity in transfer does not go to one of the linguistic systems, the L1 or L2. The parser seeks similarity to a particular linguistic phenomenon across the _______.

question 10/10

the L2

two previously learnt languages

the L1

YOURTURN

WELLDONE!

next

YOU WIN!

OPPONENT’STURN

YOULOOSE!

try again

yourturn

START

NEXT

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Соколова М.Ю., Плисов Е. В. Межъязыковые влияния в изучении третьего языка как иностранного в условиях высшего образования // Вестник Мининскогоуниверситета. 2019. Т. 7, №1. С 6.

2. Slabakova, Roumyana. (2016). The Scalpel Model of third language acquisition. International Journal of Bilingualism. articles in press. 10.1177/1367006916655413.

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