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Geography, History, Culture and Tourism




6. Languages


10. Tourism

9. Places of interest

8. Bank Holidays

7. Folklore

5. Religions

4. Population

3. Policy

2. History

1. Geography



Climate:In Russia, the climate is quite harsh, with low humidity. Winter is very long and cold and summer rather short and quite hot. In winter, warm Pacific winds do not affect the inland regions and low temperatures and high pressure characterise Siberia.Flora and fauna:The flora and fauna of Russia are very diverse, depending on climate and terrain. Taiga forests cover most of Siberia, while steppes are found in the southern part of the country. Tundra is found in the Arctic areas.The fauna of Russia is rich and includes many species of wild animals, such as bears, wolves, foxes, lynx, moose and reindeer.Natural resources:Russia is rich in natural resources, including oil, natural gas, coal, minerals and metals.

The history of Russia is long and complex, but the main events are:
  • Soviet Era: The Soviet Union (1922-1991) was led by leaders such as Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev and others;
  • Fall of the USSR: In the late 1980s and early 1990s;
  • Post-Soviet Era: Russia faced economic, social and political challenges;
  • Contemporary Politics with Vladimir Putin.
  • Settlement of Slavic peoples in the first millennium AD;
  • Mongol rule in the 13th century;
  • Russian Renaissance in the 15th century, with Ivan III, known as Ivan the Great;
  • Romanov era from 1613 to 1917;
  • Russian Revolution: In 1917, the Russian Revolution led to the fall of the Romanov dynasty. Russia became the Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and later the nucleus of the Soviet Union;



The Russian Federation, consisting of 85 federal states, is a semi-presidential republic with a federal structure: the president is elected by universal suffrage. The president cannot be elected for more than two consecutive terms. His term of office has been extended from four to six years.The federal parliament has a bicameral structure. It is composed of the Duma (the Lower House), consisting of 450 deputies and elected by universal suffrage every four years, and the Federal Council, consisting of 166 senators indirectly elected by the local assemblies.


Russia is populated by approximately 142,000,000 inhabitants, the majority of whom live in the European part.The capital, Moscow, with its 11,500,000 inhabitants is one of the most populated cities on the planet. Other cities with more than one million inhabitants are St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Perm', Ufa, Rostov, Volgograd and Samara.The Russian Federation has around 160 different ethnic groups that identify with as many language families, such as Tatars or Tartars, Ukrainians, Basques, Chechens and Armenians.


The official and also the most widely spoken language is Russian, but numerous languages are spoken within the country.Tatar: it has considerable cultural and historical importance in Russia, with around 5.5 million speakers.Bashkir: with over 1.5 million speakers, is one of the largest minority languages in Russia. Chuvash: it boasts over 1.6 million speakers.In addition, there are other multiple languages and dialects that are spoken, such as: German, Armenian, Ukrainian, Tajik, Mongolian and etc....

The traditional religion of the Russian people and the most widespread is Orthodox Christianity. The second most widespread religion is Islam. The third most widespread form of religion are traditional ethnic religions, including Slavic Rhodnoveria and Turkish-Mongolian Tengrism, and the fourth is Buddhism, present mainly among populations of Mongolian origin. Minorities of Old Orthodox, Protestant, Catholic, and Hindu believers are also present. Atheism and agnosticism are also particularly widespread.


Russia's national traditions are mainly related to festivities. Folklore began to develop roughly more than 1,000 years ago. Among the best known characters in Russian myths are:- the Baba Yaga. She is an old witch who flies on a mortar. She lives in a hut, with chicken feet as the foundation and whose walls are made of human bones.- Žar-ptica, a bird with marvellous features, used as a helper to heroes in famous Russian fairy tales.


For the Russian population, New Year's Eve is a true folk cult. The unfailing rituals are:- having on every table the so-called Olivier, a huge Russian salad- watching the cult comedy 'The Irony of Fate, or Good Sauna!' on television. Every Russian channel broadcasts this film at different times.


Every 9 May, the Russian people celebrate Victory Day. It is the second most popular holiday, right after New Year's Day. On the morning of every 9 May, it is customary to watch the big parade on Red Square on television. Throughout the day, Soviet films about the war are broadcast.



Maslenica has pagan origins and originally marked the end of winter. During this festivity (also known as the Russian carnival), abundance is celebrated. The symbolic character of Maslenica is a kind of scarecrow, which is set on fire at the end of the feast.


Epiphany Day is one of Russia's best-known national traditions. This holiday is celebrated on 19 January (due to the adoption of the Julian calendar). This holiday is characterised by the blessing of water.



The symbolic character of this holiday is Grandfather Frost. This character is characterised by a long white beard and a long blue or white suit. Like Father Christmas, Grandpa Frost also distributes presents and is often accompanied by his granddaughter. Typical Russian Christmas traditions are: - A series of popular Christmas carols sung. Each child, wearing costumes and masks, sings these carols as they go from house to house to receive gifts- During the Christmas period it is customary to have one's fortune told.



St. Petersburg is a beautiful city known for its canals, palaces, and museums. Must-see sights include the Hermitage Museum, one of the largest and most important museums in the world, and the Peterhof Palace, a grand imperial palace with stunning gardens.


The capital of Russia is a must-visit for any traveler. It's home to iconic landmarks like the Kremlin, a fortified complex that houses the seat of the Russian government, and St. Basil's Cathedral, a vibrantly colored cathedral known for its unique architecture.



The deepest freshwater lake in the world, Lake Baikal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a popular destination for nature lovers. Visitors can hike, camp, and boat on the lake, or visit one of the many hot springs in the area.


This is a group of historic towns northeast of Moscow that offer a glimpse into Russia's medieval past. The eight centers are Vladimir, Suzdal, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Rostov, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Sergiev-Posad.



This volcanic peninsula is a paradise for nature lovers. It's home to geysers, volcanoes, hot springs, and a wide variety of wildlife, including bears, wolves, and foxes.

Kamchatka Peninsula

This is the longest railway line in the world, stretching over 9,288 kilometers (5,778 miles) from Moscow to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.


The Trans-Siberian Railway


Future trends:Tourism in Russia is expected to decline in the short term due to the war in Ukraine and international sanctions.The Russian government is investing in promoting domestic tourism to compensate for the loss of international tourists.In the long term, the potential of tourism in Russia is considered high due to the country's rich cultural and natural heritage.

Inbound, presences and outbound:Revenue: In 2022, tourism in Russia generated $12.6 billion in revenue, or 3.2% of the country's GDP.Attendances: In 2022, Russia recorded 24.4 million international tourists, down 40% from 2019 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine.Outbound: In 2022, Russians spent USD 34.4 billion on foreign travel.

Destination countries for Russian touristsTurkey: Turkey is the most popular destination for Russian tourists, followed by Egypt, Armenia, the United Arab Emirates and Belarus.Italy: Italy is the fifth most popular destination for Russian tourists, with around 1.5 million visitors in 2022.

Countries of origin of tourists:Germany: Germany is the main country of origin of tourists to Russia, followed by China, Ukraine, Turkey and Uzbekistan.Italy: Italy is the sixth country of origin of tourists to Russia, with about 600,000 visitors in 2022.



Most visited tourist destinations:Moscow: The Russian capital is the country's most popular tourist destination, with attractions such as the Kremlin, Red Square and St Basil's Cathedral.St Petersburg: Russia's second largest city is known for its rich history and culture, with the Winter Palace, the Hermitage and the Church of the Saviour on Spilled Blood.Lake Baikal: The deepest lake in the world is a breathtaking natural attraction, with a variety of outdoor activities available.Kazan: The capital of the Republic of Tatarstan is a multicultural city with unique architecture and a rich history.Sochi: The host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics is a popular tourist destination for its warm climate, Black Sea beaches and snow-capped mountains.


There are several types of tourism in Russia, including:Cultural tourism: Russia boasts a rich history and culture, with numerous attractions such as the Moscow Kremlin, the Hermitage in St Petersburg and Lake Baikal.Religious tourism: Russia is a country with a strong religious tradition, with numerous churches, monasteries and other places of worship. Beach tourism: Russia has a long coastline on the Black Sea, where there are many seaside resorts such as Sochi, Anapa and Gelendzhik.Winter tourism: Russia also has numerous ski resorts, such as Krasnaya Polyana, Sheregesh and Dombay. Adventure tourism: Russia is a country with vast wilderness, which offers numerous opportunities for adventure tourism, such as trekking, rafting, fishing and hunting.Food and wine tourism: Russia has a rich culinary tradition, with many typical dishes such as borscht, pelmeni and blinis.

Russia is the largest country in the world with an area of 17,098,242 km², covering about one-ninth of the landmass. Its territory spans two continents, Europe and Asia.Russia borders the Arctic Ocean to the north; China, Mongolia, North Korea, Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea to the south; the Pacific Ocean to the east; and Georgia, the Black Sea, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Finland and Norway to the west.Russia is divided into two sections: west of the Ural Mountains is called European Russia; the Asian part, east of the Ural Mountains, Siberia. Russia can be divided into 3 regions: European Russia, Western Siberia, between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and Eastern Siberia, east of the Yenisey River.

Area and borders:

Russia is rich in rivers and lakes. The most important rivers are:The Volga: the longest river in Europe.The Lena: the longest river in Siberia.The Ob': the most abundant river in Russia.The Yenisey: a river flowing in northern Siberia.The most important lakes are:The Caspian Sea: the largest lake in the world in terms of surface area.Lake Baikal: the deepest lake in the world.Lake Ladoga: the largest lake in Europe in terms of surface area.


The Russian territory is characterised by a great variety of landforms. The main geomorphological zones are:The Russian Plain: occupies the western part of the country and is the largest plain in Europe.The Urals: a mountain range that runs from north to south and separates the Russian lowlands from Siberia.The Central Siberian Plateau: a vast plateau located in the central part of Siberia.The Altai Mountains: a mountain range located in the south-east of Siberia.The Caucasus mountain range: a mountain range located in the south of Russia, forming a natural border with Europe.