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Behaviorism

Constructivism

Cognitivism

Learning theories of instructional design

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Behaviorism centers on the process of student learning. It emphasizes that all behaviors are acquired through interactions with the environment.Behaviorists posit that human behavior is influenced by rewards or reinforcement received from the environment.In behaviorism, students assume a passive role: teachers give students information in order to stimuli a response.

John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner

Behaviorism

Methodological Behaviorism: states that only observable behavior should be studied scientifically, and mental states and cognitive processes are not relevant for understanding behavior.Radical Behaviorism: suggests that behavior is shaped by past and present environments and the rewards or punishments within them, affecting behavior in positive or negative ways. manner.

Radical constructivism: suggests that the formation of knowledge relies on an individual's subjective interpretation of their own experiences.Social constructivism: suggests that human development occurs within a social context and that knowledge is constructed through interactions with other people.

Constructivism posits that knowledge is best acquired through active mental construction and reflective engagement.In constructivism knowledge is formed through an intersubjective interpretation process: Learners engage with the information presented, drawing from past experiences, personal perspectives, and cultural backgrounds to construct their own understanding.Factors such as a student's previous experiences, education, social and cultural convictions, and cognitive processing style enable students to absorb information in their unique way.

Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky

Constructivism

According to cognitivists, memory holds significant importance, making it vital to understand the processes and conditions that improve memory in order to comprehend how learning occurs.

Cognitivism focuses on the processes by which the human mind receives, organizes, stores, and retrieves information. This theory emphasizes internal mental processes rather than solely observable behaviors. It emphasizes active learning rather than passive learning. Active learning entails students participating in meaningful tasks that demand the application of students' own thinking skills. This specific form of learning often involves high levels of interaction.

Maria Montessori, Jean Piaget, John Dewey

Cognitivism

References

Kimmons, R. & Caskurlu, S. (2020). The Students' Guide to Learning Designand Research. EdTech Books. https://edtechbooks.org/studentguide Muhajirah, M. (2020). Basic of learning theory. International Journal of Asian Education, 1(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.46966/ijae.v1i1.23 Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2018). Chapter 4. In Curriculum: Foundations, principles and issues. essay, Pearson.