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Transcript

THE PETERLOO MASSACRE

1819

SOCIAL REFORM

1820

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WILLIAM IV

1830

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GEORGE IV

1820-1830

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

ABOLITION OF SLAVERY

1833

1834

THE AMENDMENT OF THE POOR LAW

The Reform Act

The Factory Act

1832

1834

1833 THE SLAVERY ABOLITION ACT

1832 - THE REFORM ACT It extended the vote to all male members of the middle class, and allocated seats in the House of Commons to the growing industrial towns to the north and midlands of England. This was not a revolution as the majority of the population still did not have any political rights.

1833 - THE FACTORY ACT The conditions of children working in the factories and mines. They worked 14 hrs/day. The Act forbade the employment of children under the age of 9 and the daily hrs of those under 13 were limited to 8. Those under 18 were not to work more than 13,5 hrs.

The Napoleonic wars had stimulated industrial production because of the government's increased demand for foodstuffs, clothing and war munitions.When the war ended the Government no longer required these commodities and many soldiers and sailors found themselves unemployed.

Social Unrest

The Tory government attempted to pay off the huge war debt by passing the Importation Act or Corn Law which prohibited the importation of grain from abroad. Rich businessmen became richer and the poor and unemployed suffered hunger.

The Combination Act (1800) was passed to prevent disorder, public meetings of workers and trade unions, that were made illegal.

He was a member of Parliament who abandoned a dissolute lifestyle when he became an evangelical Christian in 1790. He appealed to many types of social reform, campaigning against slavery. thanks to him the slave trade was abolished in 1807. However, this did not free those who were already saves. Only in 1833 with the Slavery Abolition Act all slaves in the British empire were free.

William Wilberforce

Groups of Luddites (textile workers who attributed their problems to technological innovations) destroyed new weaving frames and attempted to destroy cotton mills that used new machinery.

The government suspended Habeas Corpus, a law which protected men from illegal imprisonment, and arrested radical leaders.In St. Peter's Fields in Manchester an unarmed crowd of protesters was violently dispersed by charging cavalry.The nickname Peterloo Massacre was an ironic comparison to the Battle of Waterloo.

He was a man of fashion and a patron of art and architecture. He donated his father's library to set up the British Museum Library and had the government buy a collection of paintings which marked the beginning of the National Gallery. His taste for exoticism found expression in the Royal Pavilion (Brighton 1787) His extravagance and immorality embarassed the government in the times of poverty and hardship of Napoleonic wars and post-Napoleonic era.1829: the Catholic Emancipation Bill gave Catholics and Dissenters access to public offices.1830: his death was a relief for the nation. He was succeded by his younger brother as William IV.

The Poor Law of 1815 obliged parishes to offer financial aid to the poor and unemployed. This law was criticised by the upper and middle classes, who felt that it cost them too much and that it descouraged people from looking for work. With the Amendment of the Poor Law in 1834 parishes were no longer obliged to offer financial help to the poor. If people wanted help, they had to go into a workhouse where they were given shelter, clothes and food in exchange for hours of manual labour. Conditions there were so terrible that only those who desperately needed help would go there.

1834

On his accession he was very popular. He was more liberal than his brother had been and under his reing Britain passed through a period of relative stability while the rest of Europe was still in a state of turmoil and revolution. His reign saw several important reforms that contributed to bringing democracy to the nation.

1830-1837