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(Steenkamp, 2017)

A brand does not have to have (nor typically has) an identity on all dimensions!

A set of associations that the company aspires to create or maintain. These associations imply a promise to suppliers, employees, and customers.

Brand Identity

(Kapferer, 1997)

Brand Identity Prism

  • Quality/value (Wal-Mart–Always Low Prices)
  • Users (McDonald’s--Families w/ kids)
  • Brand personality (Harley Davidson-- Macho)
  • Relationship (United Airlines–Premier 1K)
  • Benefits–Functional (related directly to the functions performed by the product or service) (Volvo-Safety)
  • Benefits–Emotional (feelings the brand provides to the customer) (Coke-Happiness)
  • Benefits–Self-expressive (what does ownership of the brand tell others about the kind of person I am)(Toyota Prius–Environmentally conscious)
  • Benefits–Societal (what does the brand to create a better, more just society?) (Nike–Social justice)
  • Product scope (Visa--Credit Cards)
  • Local vs Global (British Airways—The World’s Favourite Airline)
  • Organizational values (Ben & Jerry’s–racial justice)
  • Country of origin (Volkswagen-Germany)
  • Visual image/logo (KLM–Royal Dutch Airlines)
  • Heritage/myth (Aston Martin – James Bond)