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Transcript

Soil Nitrogen

Lesson 11

Soil Nitrogen: Vocabulary

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

Ammonification

Ammonium

Denitrification

Immobilization

Leaching

Mineralization

Nitrate-Nitrogen

Nitrification

Soil NitrogenFixation

Volatilization

Reveal Answers

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Form of nitrogen expressed as NH4, which is a plant-available form of nitrogen that occurs as part of the nitrogen cycle in soil; occurs from soil organic matter decomposition and other sources

Production of ammonium (NH4) from soil organic matter decomposition and other sources

The temporary “tying up” of inorganic nitrogen by soil microorganisms decomposing plant residues is not strictly a loss process

Loss of nitrogen in the form of nitrate-nitrogen which is a water soluble, mobile form, with excess water that moves below the root-zone, or to drainage tile

Conversion and loss of nitrate-nitrogen to various nitrogen gases when soil becomes saturated with water

Organic matter decomposition which releases nutrients in a plant available form

Part of the nitrogen cycle where soil organisms convert ammonia and ammonium to nitrite and next to nitrate-nitrogen which is available to plants

Ammonia nitrogen loss from nitrogen fertilizers and other sources. Loss can be especially high when nitrogen fertilizers containing urea are surface-applied directly on moist residue

Form of nitrogen expressed as NO3 , which is a plant-available form of nitrogen that occurs as part of the nitrogen cycle in soil. Nitrate is the form of nitrogen most susceptible to leaching loss

Conversion of nitrogen in the air to organic nitrogen forms, which occurs either by soil organisms or in association with legumes

Soil Nitrogen: Affecting Factors

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

Rainfall

Slope Steepness

  • Soil drainage, soil texture, and slope steepness all impact nitrogen transportation and transformation processes that limit the availability of nitrogen to crops or lead to loss
  • Leaching rate is affected by soil texture and soil water content (large pore spaces = quick leaching, and small pore spaces = water pools = loss of nitrogen as a gas)

  • Rainfall, temperature, and site conditions all impact the rate of nitrogen mineralization from organic matter decomposition, nitrogen cycling, and nitrogen losses through leaching, runoff, or denitrification. Organic matter decomposition releases nitrogen quickly in warm, humid, and aerated soils and releases slowly in cool, dry, less aerated soils.
  • Nitrogen in the nitrate-nitrogen form can leach out of the root zone.

or

Temperature

Site Conditions

Soil Texture

Soil Drainage

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Sandy soil

Source

Time

Placement

Soil Nitrogen: Management

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

Soil Nitrogen: Test Your Knowledge

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

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4

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1

Soil Nitrogen: Test Your Knowledge

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

2

4

3

1

Soil Nitrogen: Test Your Knowledge

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

2

4

3

1

Soil Nitrogen: Test Your Knowledge

Lesson 11: Soil Nitrogen

2

4

3

1

Ammonification

Ammonium

Denitrification

Immobilization

Leaching

Mineralization

Nitrate-Nitrogen

Nitrification

Soil NitrogenFixation

Volatilization

Organic matter decomposition releasing nutrients in a plant available form that occurs during respiration

  • Side dressing: applying nitrogen after plants emerge
  • Knifed applications: placing a band of fertilizer below the soil surface
  • Broadcast applications: uniformly distributing nitrogen
  • Sprinkler irrigation applications: applying fertilizer through the water distribution of an irrigation system

  • Anhydrous Ammonia (least expensive nitrogen source)
  • Urea loss from ammonia volatilization can be reduced by incorporation or by using stabilizers
  • Organic amendments or manure, must be applied uniformly

  • Apply adequate amounts when the plants are growing and will use the nitrogen quickly
  • Apply nitrogen after the plants emerge (side dressing)
  • Apply a portion of nitrogen prior to emergence and a portion following emergence
  • Avoid applying urea materials during warm/humid conditions

  • Leaching is an issue because of large pore size
  • Nitrogen application rate selection is the first concern
  • Rate is determined by assessing the amount of nitrogen needed to optimize yield based on the agronomic, economic and environmental considerations
  • Increase SOM
  • Avoid compaction