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Learning Theories

Student: Santana Sianez

Cognition is defined as the "mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experiences, and senses. From a neuroscience perspective, instructions and learning are parts of a child's brain development and psychological development. Cognitivism has increased the understanding of how humans process and make sense of new information, how the learner accesses, interprets, integrates, processes, and organizes new knowledge.

  • Jean Piaget proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development. His cognitive theory seeks to describe and explain the development of thought processes and mental states. Piaget recognizes that the environment plays a huge role and focuses on changes in the eternal cognitive structure.
  • Ulric Neisser was referred to as the "father of cognitive psychology" and an advocate for ecological approaches to cognitive research. Neisser was a brilliant synthesizer of diverse thoughts and feelings.

Cognitivism is the psychology of learning which emphasizes human cognition or intelligence. This theory refers to how we think and gain knowledge. Cognitivism is a learning theory that focuses on learning processes rather than on the observed behavior. Cognitivism contends that the "computer" of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (2020).


  • Constructivism gives students ownership of what they are learning.
  • Constructivism learning is transferable. In a constructivist classroom, students create organizing principles to take with them to other learning settings.

Applying constructivism in classroom learning will involve incorporating interactive learning. Students become engaged by applying their existing knowledge and real-world experiences, learning to hypothesize, testing their theories, and ultimately drawing conclusions from their findings.

  • John Dewey is cited as the philosophical founder of constructivism.
  • Jean Piaget's theory of constructivism argues that people produce knowledge and form meaning bad=sed upon their experiences. Piaget's theories covered learning theories, teaching methods, and educational constructivism.
  • Lev Vygotsky, theorist that suggests cultural development appears twice, on the social and individual level. Vygotsky has developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development.

Constructivism is the theory that says learners construct knowledge rather than take in information. Its central idea is that human learning is constructed, that learners build new knowledge upon the foundations of a person learning.

  1. Simulation
  2. Lecture
  3. Demonstration
  4. Program Instruction
  • John B. Watson, an American psychologist who popularized the scientific theory of behaviorism. Watson is accredited for the concept of classical conditioning, the learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
  • B.F. Skinner, an influential American psychologist. As a behaviorist, Skinner devoted the theory of operant conditioning. The idea that its consequences determine behavior makes it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again.
  • Edward Thorndike, an American psychologist whose learning framework supported the S-R association between stimuli and responses. Thorndike's theory references the law of effect principle, which produces a satisfying effect in a particular situation.

A theory that can be explained in terms of conditioning without feelings or thoughts. Behaviorism focuses on the idea that behaviors are learned through interactions with the environment. This learning theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment, and inherited factors have very little influence on behavior.