Want to make creations as awesome as this one?

Transcript

How does the heating and cooling rate of land and water affect the movement of air in Coastal areas?

Day 1:

04:00

How does the heating and cooling rate of land and water affect the movement of air in coastal areas?

Guiding Question:

Instructions:

Materials:

Materials and instructions

  • Hot plates
  • Beakers
  • Cups of sand
  • Cups of water
  • Thermometers
  • Graduated cylinders
  • Safety Goggles
  • Using the materials on the side tables, design an experiment that answers the guiding question.
  • Your experiment must be able to explain how land and water heat and cool differently, and how this may affect the air above them.
  • Your experiment must have at least four graphable points.
  • Before beginning your experiment, you must clear your procedure with me.

Your experiment should prove a claim. Your claim should answer the guiding question.

Your proposal should be a rough draft of your experimental procedure. It should aim to test a phenomena that answers the guiding question. Some things to consider:

Proposal

Claim

Data

Your experiment should collect graphable data. You must collect data that can be graphed.

Guiding Question

How does the heating and cooling rate of land and water affect the movement of air in coastal areas?

Once you have submitted your proposal, carry out your investigation

Investigation

Once you are finished with your investigation that includes your graph, your group must create a whiteboard presentation to explain your findings to the class using the format shown below:

Presentation of Evidence

  • If you have not finished your whiteboard, take five minutes to finish it's final details
  • Remember to include your claim, a summary of your evidence that supports your claim, and a justification of evidence, explaining how your evidence proves (or does not prove) your claim using science concepts you have learned.
  • Once your whiteboard is complete, your group must choose a presenter to present your group's whiteboard to all the other groups
  • Each group will present their whiteboard to the class, explaining your procedures, findings, and justification.
Get out your notebooks and pencils!

Discussion Lesson 1

Based on what you now know about the heating and cooling rates of land and water, differentiate between how land and ocean water are heated by the sun's radiation?

How did your experiment help you explain why it is often milder (less drastic temperature difference) in coastal areas while inland places have more temperature extremes (highs and lows)?

Using the information you learned, predict how this could affect wind direction in coastal areas.

Why Do Temperatures Vary?

- land- water- Altitude- Geographic position- Cloud cover- Ocean current

Factors:

Land heats and cools more rapidly than waterWater heats up longer and will keep heat longerAs air is heated, what happens to density? As air is cooled what happens to density?

Land and Water Temperatures

How would this affect wind?

ExPLAIN WHY AIR PRESSURE OCCURS AND PREDICT HOW IT AFFECTS WIND PATTERNS AND WEATHER

Day 2:

04:00

Get out your notebooks and pencils!

Discussion Lesson 2

What is Air Pressure?

- Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air above- Air pressure is exerted in all directions- It doesn't just push down on an object, it pushes all around the object

Measuring Air Pressure

  • Barometer: device used for measuring air pressure
  • Units:
    • millibars (mb)
    • inches of mercury
  • Toricelli: invented the mercury barometer in 1643

The unequal heating of Earth's surface causes pressure differences Solar radiation is the ultimate energy source for wind

How do we get pressure difference on Earth?

  • Isobars:
    • lines on a map that connect places of equal air pressure
  • The help map out air masses and make it easier to see pressure differences over an area
  • Pressure gradient?

Pressure Differences

  • Closely spaced isobars: indicate steep pressure gradient and high winds
  • Widely spaced isobars: indicate a weak pressure gradient and light winds

Isobars

High and Low Pressure Systems

Explain the occurance of jet strems and global wind, applying your knowledge of wind and heat transfer, as well as predict the processes of the water cycle

Day 3:

03:00

Get out your notebooks and pencils!

Discussion Lesson 3

Wind- What causes it?

  • Wind is a result of horizontal differences in air pressure
  • Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

Measuring Wind

  • Wind is named by the direction from which they blow
    • Example: The Westerlies go west to east; sea breezes blow from the sea
  • Tool for direction: Wind Vane
  • Tool for speed: Anemometer

Jet Streams

  • Jet streams are fast moving rivers or air high in the atmosphere
  • They travel west to east and move weather
  • The atmosphere balances itself by transferring heat
  • Warm air moves to the poles and cool air moves to the equator

Global Winds

  • The curving of global winds and ocean currents due to the rotation of the Earth
  • Winds in the north go right and winds in the south go left
  • are all of these arrows point in the right direction?

Coriolis Effect

  • Trade winds: Two belts of winds that blow east to west
  • Westerlies: west to east motion of the atmosphere
    • Jet stream occurs here
  • Polar easterlies: winds that blow east to west

Global Winds

The Water Cycle

  • The cycle where water circulates between the Earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land
  • Involves all three water phases
  • Water changes from a solid to a liquid through _________________
  • It changes from a liquid to a gas through _________________
  • It changes from a gas to a liquid through __________________
  • And, it changes from a liquid to a solid through _________________

Phase Changes of Water

At what temperature does the air have to be lowered to for condensation to form?

Day 4:

04:00

At what temperature does the air have to be lowered to for condensation to form?

Guiding Question:

Instructions:

Materials:

Materials and instructions

  • Hot plates
  • Beakers
  • Ice
  • Cups of water
  • Thermometers
  • Graduated cylinders
  • Scale
  • Using the materials on the side tables, design an experiment that answers the guiding question.
  • Your experiment must be able to explain how dew is formed and at what point it occurs
  • Your experiment must have at least four graphable points.
  • Before beginning your experiment, you must clear your procedure with me.

Your experiment should prove a claim. Your claim should answer the guiding question.

Your proposal should be a rough draft of your experimental procedure. It should aim to test a phenomena that answers the guiding question. Some things to consider:

Proposal

Claim

Data

Your experiment should collect graphable data. You must collect data that can be graphed.

Guiding Question

What is dew point and how do we determine it?

Once you have submitted your proposal, carry out your investigation

Investigation

Once you are finished with your investigation that includes your graph, your group must create a whiteboard presentation to explain your findings to the class using the format shown below:

Presentation of Evidence

  • If you have not finished your whiteboard, take five minutes to finish it's final details
  • Remember to include your claim, a summary of your evidence that supports your claim, and a justification of evidence, explaining how your evidence proves (or does not prove) your claim using science concepts you have learned.
  • Once your whiteboard is complete, your group must choose a presenter to present your group's whiteboard to all the other groups
  • Each group will stay at another group's whiteboard for five minutes before moving left to the next group
Get out your notebooks and pencils!

Discussion Lesson 4

  • Water vapor is water in the form of gas
  • It is the source of all clouds and precipitation
  • When it comes to understanding weather, water vapor is the most important gas in the atmosphere

What is water vapor?

Dew point

Dew point is the temperature to which air needs to be cooled in order to reach saturationWhen saturated, warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air

Humidity

  • Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air
  • Saturated air = completely full

Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor compared to what it could hold at that temperature and pressure
    • % of how full
  • Measured using hygrometers and psychrometers
  • In your own words, write a definition for dewpoint and relative humidity
  • Turn to your partner at your table and compare definitions
  • Choose a table representative once you are all finished with your definitions
  • Share definitions and we form a class definition
  • Individually, write a summary about how relative humidity and dew point are related. Include what happens as you increase and decrease the temperature of the surrounding air and why that occurs

Exit Ticket

Describe how clouds are formed and recall how they are shaped and types of precipitation

Day 5:

04:00

What do you see?

Get out your notebooks and pencils!

Discussion Lesson 5

  • Clouds form when air rises and is cooled to its dew point
  • Clouds are classified based on their form and height
  • There are three types:

Cloud Formation

Types of Clouds

  • Cirrus (curl of hair)- high, white, and thin
  • Cumulus (cumulate = a pile)- rounded and fluffy with a flat base. Can weigh up to a million pounds
  • Stratus (a layer)- sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky
  • Fog- A cloud with its base at or very near the ground
  • For precipitation to form, cloud droplets must grow in volume by at roughly one million times

How does precipitation form?

  • The type of precipitation that reaches Earth's surface depends on the temperatures in the lower few kilometers of the atmosphere

Types of Precipitation

  • Rain: drops of water that fall from a cloud and have a diameter of at least 0.5 mm
  • Snow: light, fluffy, six-sided ice crystals
  • Sleet: small drops of clear to translucent ice

Types of Precipitation

  • Glaze: when raindrops become supercooled as they fall through subfreezing air and turns to ice on impact
  • Hail: form of solid precipitation which consists of balls of irregular lumps of ice produced in cumulonimbus clouds

Types of Precipitation

WindWind VaneJet streamsCoriolis effectWater cycleMeltingEvaporationCondensationSaturationDewpointHumidityAnemometer

CumulusStratusFogPrecipitationRainSnowSleetGlazeHailGlobal WindsCloudsBarometer

Hexagonal Thinking

DensityHeat transferWater vaporPressureConvectionRadiationLand breezeSea breezeWeatherIsobarsRelative HumidityPsychrometer