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Transcript

Chapters 5 & 6

Basic Anatomy & Physiology of the Skeletal and Muscular Systems

Use this interactive powerpoint to learn some basics about the skeletal system and fill in the corresponding guided notes at the front of the class (we're going to learn about basic structures and functions before we get into identification of bones and bone markings - don't worry, we'll get there!)I have included interactive buttons, videos, and quizzes to help guide you through - I hope you enjoy this format!Don't forget, you will have an exam on the Respiratory & Urinary systems on Monday, 3/25 :)

Instructions for 3/21 & 3/22

  • State the major functions of the skeletal system
  • Label and describe the structure of a long bone
  • Label and describe the microscopic structure of a bone
  • Compare and contrast the 3 types of bone cells
  • Describe the process of bone remodeling
  • Describe how PTH and calcitonin help regulate calcium
  • Identify joints based on function
  • Describe the major skeletal disorders discussed in class

Learning Outcomes (Skeletal)

  • green stick fracture
  • osteoporosis
  • osteogenesis imperfecta
  • arthritis
  • sprain
  • Hematoma
  • Fibrous callous
  • Bony callous
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Calcitonin
  • Fibrous joint
  • Cartilaginous joint
  • Synovial joint
  • Ligaments
  • Fracture
  • Transverse fracture
  • spiral fracture
  • comminuted fracture
  • compound fracture
  • Epiphysis
  • Diaphysis
  • Epiphyseal plate
  • Red Marrow
  • Yellow Marrow
  • Articular Cartilage
  • Osteon
  • Osteocyte
  • Lacuna
  • Canaliculi
  • Haversian Canal
  • Osteoblast
  • Osteoclast
  • Bone remodeling

Vocab Terms (Skeletal)

The Skeletal System

Major Functions of Skeletal System​​

  • Support
  • Protection
  • Movement
  • Storage
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Click on the on the photo to learn more about the structures of a basic long bone.

Basic Bone Structure

  • Click on the on the photo to learn more about the microscopic bone structure.

Microscopic Bone Structure

Click on each bone cell to learn about their functions.

Types of Bone Cells

Quiz yourself! Make sure you hit "send" to save your answer

Quiz yourself! Make sure you hit "send" to save your answer

Quiz yourself! Make sure you hit "send" to save your answer

Click on the play button to watch a video on the process of bone remodeling. Take notes while you watch.
Bone remodeling occurs
Bony callus forms
Fibrocartilage callus forms
Hematoma forms

Bone Remodeling/Healing

  • Gland: thyroid gland
  • Stimulus for release: increased blood calcium (Ca2+)
  • Target: osteoblasts
  • Effect: increases osteoblast activity to use excess calcium in blood to create new bone tissue.
    • Ultimately decreases blood calcium levels
  • Gland: parathyroid glands (yellow dots on thyroid gland above)
  • Stimulus for release: decreased blood calcium (Ca2+)
  • Target: osteoclasts
  • Effect: increases osteoclast activity to break down bone and release calcium into bloodstream.
    • Ultimately increases blood calcium levels

Calcitonin

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Endocrine Control of Calcium Homeostasis

Osteoblasts use excess calcium in blood to create new bone tissue

Osteoclasts break down bone and release calcium into bloodstream

Thyroid gland releases calcitonin

Parathyroid glands release PTH

Blood calcium levels increase

Blood calcium levels decrease

Drag and drop the statements to fill in the feedback loop regarding calcium homeostasis

Osteoblasts use excess calcium in blood to create new bone tissue

Osteoclasts break down bone and release calcium into bloodstream

Thyroid gland releases calcitonin

Parathyroid glands release PTH

Blood calcium levels increase

Blood calcium levels decrease

Drag and drop the statements to fill in the feedback loop regarding calcium homeostasis

Click on each type of joint to learn more about their specific functions

A joint, also called an articulation, is a site where 2 or more bones meet. 2 functions:1. securely holds bones together2. allow the skeleton to move when muscles contract **Note: many joints also have ligaments which provides additional support

Joints/Articulations

Quiz yourself! Make sure you hit "send" to save your answer

Skeletal Disorders

Fractures

  • reduced bone density
  • Osteoclasts more active than osteoblasts
  • increased risk of fracture
  • more common in women >65 years old

Osteoporosis

  • “Brittle bone disease”
  • Genetic disorder that affects collagen -> reduces flexibility of bones -> cannot withstand outside force

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)

  • inflammation of joints
  • Usually caused by “wear and tear” -> degenerating cartilage
  • Symptoms: pain, swelling, redness, crepitus

Arthritis

  • Damage to ligament
  • Usually caused by overuse or excessive stretching
  • Symptoms: pain, swelling
  • Ligaments have poor blood supply -> difficult to heal

Sprain

End here for 3/21 & 3/22 - we'll pick up with the muscular system as a class next week

Muscular System

  • State the major functions of the muscular system
  • Compare and contrast the 3 types of muscular tissue
  • Label and describe the basic structure of a muscle
  • Label and describe the microscopic structure of a sarcomere
  • Describe the steps of the sliding filament theory
  • Identify and describe major movements
  • Identify and describe the major muscular disorders discussed in class

Learning Outcomes (Muscular)

  • cross bridge
  • power stroke
  • rigor mortis
  • flexion
  • extension
  • adduction
  • abduction
  • circumduction
  • rotation
  • dorsiflexion
  • plantar flexion
  • strain
  • myasthenia gravis
  • ALS
  • Tetanus
  • Botulism
  • Skeletal muscle
  • cardiac muscle
  • smooth muscle
  • muscle fiber
  • myofibril
  • sarcomere
  • fascicle
  • muscle
  • tendon
  • sliding filament theory
  • actin
  • myosin
  • myosin binding sites

Vocab Terms (Muscular)

  • Contract to permit movement
  • Maintain posture & body position
  • Stabilize joints
  • Generate Heat

What are the functions of the muscular system?

Types of Muscle

  • Muscle fiber
  • Myofibril
  • sarcomere
  • Fascicle
  • Muscle
  • Tendon

Basic Muscle Structure

Microscopic Structure of a Sarcomere

  • Mechanism of muscle contraction
  • Overarching goal
  • Shorten the sarcomeres
  • Myosin must interact with actin to “slide” the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere

Sliding Filament Theory

The Neuromuscular Junction

  • When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, ____ enters the axon terminal which causes the synaptic vesicles to release a neurotransmitter called ___________
  • _________ binds to receptors on the surface of the muscle fiber and generates an action potential across the muscle.

Sliding Filament Theory: Step 1

Sliding Filament Theory: Step 1 (animated)

Intramuscular calcium release

  • When the action potential spreads across the muscle fiber, it causes ____ to be released from the ________ ________ (a special structure in muscles that stores calcium)

Sliding Filament Theory: Step 2

Troponin Binding

  • Calcium binds to _______ on the actin filament.
  • This causes _________ to change shape and expose ________-binding sites

Sliding Filament Theory: Step 3

Cross-Bridge Formation & Powerstroke

  • _____ on the myosin head breaks to provide the energy needed to form a _________ (myosin head attaches to actin filament)
  • ADP + P release from myosin head to pull the actin filament towards the middle of the sarcomere (__________)

Sliding Filament Theory: Step 4

Cross-Bridge Release

  • _____ must be added back to the myosin head to allow it to detach from the actin filament

Sliding Filament Theory: Step 5

The process of forming a cross-bridge, power stroke, and then releasing the cross-bridge is repeated to allow the myosin heads to “walk” the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere.

Sliding Filament Theory

Why does rigor mortis occur after death?

Body Movements

Extension increases the angle of a joint - increasing the distance between 2 bones

  • In the video - when she lowers the weight

Flexion decreases the angle of a joint - bringing 2 bones together

  • In the video - when she lifts the weight

Flexion & Extension

Abduction - moves a limb away from the body midline

  • In the video - when she is raising the weights

Adduction - moves a limb toward the body midline

  • In video - when she is lowering the weights

Adduction & Abduction

Circular movement

Circumduction

Twisting motion at a joint

Rotation

Plantar Flexion - points toes away from head

Dorsiflexion - point toes towards head

Up and down movements of the foot at the ankle

Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion

Muscular Disorders

Strain

Myasthenia Gravis

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis AKA: ALS/Lou Gehrig’s Disease

Tetanus

Botulism

Central canal within an osteon through which blood vessels and nerves pass.The Haversian canal branches off into smaller canals known as canaliculi. This brings a blood supply to all of the bone cells throughout the compact bone tissue.

Haversian Canal

Storage

  • Bones serve as a storage site calcium

Bones provide a hard, protective structure around vital organs. For Example:

Protection

  • Skull protects brain
  • Vertebral column protects spinal cord
  • Thoracic cage protects heart & lungs

The diaphysis (shaft) contains a cavity known as the medullary cavity which is surrounded by compact bone tissue

Diaphysis

"shaft" of long bone
  • In children, the medullary cavity contains red bone marrow
  • In adults, the red bone marrow of the medullary cavity is replaced with yellow marrow (fat storage)

Muscles attach to bones. When they contract, it moves our skeleton @ joints

Movement

Tiny cavities within bone tissue which contains osteocytes (mature bone cells)Each lacuna has a blood supply delivered to them by canaliculi (tiny canals that branch off from the Haversian canal to deliver blood to each lacuna)

Lacuna

Plural: lacunae

Red bone marrow is the site of all blood cell formation

Hematopoiesis

Blood cell formation

Two bones are linked with hyaline cartilage. They generally have more movement than a fibrous joint, but less movement than synovial joints.Some examples include:

Cartilagenous Joints

Slightly movable
  • Vertebral column
  • thoracic cage - where ribs meet sternum
  • pubic symphisis (where pubic bones meet)

Our skeleton provides a scaffolding for muscles to attach to.

Support

Fibrous joints are immovable joints - bones are tightly bound together by fibrous connective tissue.Common examples of fibrous joints:

Fibrous Joints

Immovable
  • sutures of the skull
  • tooth sockets

Bone tissue found primarily in the ends of long bones (epiphysis). Contains red bone marrow which is the site of hematopoiesis

Spongy bone

Osteoclasts dissolve bone tissue that is old or damaged. They may also dissolve bone tissue when the body needs calcium to be released from storage and into the bloodstream.

Osteoclast

Bone-destroying cells

The functional unit of compact bone tissue.Composed of concentric rings made of collagen + calcium salts around a central canal (Haversian Cancal) which supplies the bone tissue with blood vessels and nerves

Osteon

Hyaline cartilage found at the ends of long bones. It provides cushion & protection to prevent bones from rubbing against each other at a joint.

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Articular Cartilage

  • Hint: "articulation" refers to where two bones meet (a joint)

A flat plate of cartilage (known as hyaline cartilage) that is seen in young, growing bone. It allows for lengthwise growth of a long bone.At the end of puberty, hormones stop long bone growth and the epiphyseal plate is completely replaced by bone.

Epiphyseal Plate

"Growth Plate"

These cells replace hyaline cartilage with bone tissue as you grow and develop throughout childhood. They also are involved in bone repair. After a bone has been fractured, osteoblasts are involved in laying down new bone tissue at the site of the fracture.

Osteoblast

Bone-building cell

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Epiphysis

End of long bone
  • Contains red bone marrow which is the site of hematopoiesis

Found primarily within lacuna of the osteon

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells

Joints in which the ends of bones are separated by a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid (provides lubrication and cushioning). These joints are the most movable.Examples include

Synovial Joints

Freely movable joints
  • joints of the limbs (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle)

Contains red bone marrow - site of hematopoiesis

Epiphysis

ends of long bone