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Transcript

Module 44-46

Goals:

  • Explain how & where cities originated
  • Explain which processes influence patterns of organization

Module 44

The Origin & Influences of Urbanization

With the help of industrialization, some of the permanent settlements developed into cities which started the formation of what we see them as today.

We developed more permanent settlements alogside our occupations that were mostly agricultural at this point.

Humans wandered around Earth as nomads-no permanent place to call home.

Cities of Today

More Permanent Settlements

For many years...

Nomadic

Timeline of Human Settling

How & where do cities originate?

Socioeconomic Stratification

Agricultural Surplus

As rural villages grew, their social structure and economic transactions became more complicated. As a result, these village societies needed to manage their increasingly complex relationships. Early governments evolved as some people in the village began to take charge of society and hired others to enforce the rules. As the need to store and distribute the agricultural surplus grew, different social classes developed.A society with these two elements was prepared for urbanization.

The Origin & Function of Cities

Because of the improving farming methods, farmers were able to produce more food than they needed for themselves and their families. This food surplus, or agricultural surplus, was essential to the creation of cities. Surplus agricultural production made it possible to support a larger population, so some villages grew bigger.

Major Urban Hearth Areas in the World

The first cities appeared in distinct regions, such as:

  • Mesopotamia-small, (rarely >30, 000 people), 0.5 to 2 mi
  • the Nile River
Over time, cities appeared in:
  • the Indus River valley
  • the Yellow River valley of China
  • Meso America
  • the Andean highlands and coastal areas of Peru
  • West Africa

Site

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Site & Situation

ost of the hearth areas are located in river valleys or, as in some areas of Mesoamerica and the Andean region, near lakes and mountain streams. Early agricultural settlements needed sources of water for their crops, and as the villages became cities, water was important not only for irrigation but also for transportation and sanitation. Given the importance of water to human life, it is not surprising that people chose to settle near sources of clean, fresh water.

The earliest settlements were agricultural villages, formed when humans decided to stay in one place to farm. These settlements were located adjacent to resource nodes of fertile river valleys that flooded every year, enriching the soil for productive crops. Thus, people could remain in place at the same location without having to move. The population of these agricultural villages rarely exceeded 200 people, many of them related to one another through birth or marriage. All the inhabitants were involved in food procurement—tending the fields or harvesting and preparing crops. As populations within the agricultural villages increased, cities developed, and more people became removed, both physically and psychologically, from everyday agricultural activities. Two elements were necessary for this dramatic social change: an agricultural surplus that resulted in population growth and the emergence of socioeconomic stratification.

The earliest settlements were agricultural villages, formed when humans decided to stay in one place to farm. These settlements were located adjacent to resource nodes of fertile river valleys that flooded every year, enriching the soil for productive crops. Thus, people could remain in place at the same location without having to move. The population of these agricultural villages rarely exceeded 200 people, many of them related to one another through birth or marriage. All the inhabitants were involved in food procurement—tending the fields or harvesting and preparing crops. As populations within the agricultural villages increased, cities developed, and more people became removed, both physically and psychologically, from everyday agricultural activities. Two elements were necessary for this dramatic social change: an agricultural surplus that resulted in population growth and the emergence of socioeconomic stratification.

The earliest settlements were agricultural villages, formed when humans decided to stay in one place to farm. These settlements were located adjacent to resource nodes of fertile river valleys that flooded every year, enriching the soil for productive crops. Thus, people could remain in place at the same location without having to move. The population of these agricultural villages rarely exceeded 200 people, many of them related to one another through birth or marriage. All the inhabitants were involved in food procurement—tending the fields or harvesting and preparing crops. As populations within the agricultural villages increased, cities developed, and more people became removed, both physically and psychologically, from everyday agricultural activities. Two elements were necessary for this dramatic social change: an agricultural surplus that resulted in population growth and the emergence of socioeconomic stratification.