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Mayer's Principles of multimedia: Effective or not?




1- Multimedia Principle

2- Contiguity Principle

3- Modality Principle

4- Redundancy Principle

5- Coherence Principle

6- Personalization Principle

The multimedia principle expounds that the use of written or spoken words along with imagery should be used because the images should be what learners remember.

Multimedia Principle

Image from stock images by Genially

Multimedia Principle

Speaking and imagery
Text-based only

The contiguity principle has two parts that aid in the clarity of any presentation by keeping alignment between text and graphics and voice and actions

Contiguity Principle

Temporal Contiguity- where the narration plays at the same time as the animation(s)

Temporal Contiguity Principle

Captions or Labels
Instant feedback
Titles or banner headings
Where definitions or words are near graphics, feedback near questions or wrong answers

Spatial Contiguity Principle

This is a story that I am sure many couples have gone through at some point in their relationship. The point of communication is to be concise and not overload someone without their full attention.
"I don't remember because you told me as you were walking out the door and I didn't have any coffee yet!"
"You told me that you were going to cook tonight and I was going to do the dishes! How do you not remember this conversation?"

Contiguity Principle - Don't do this

The modality principle tries to create a connection visually and orally. A few exceptions are those step-by-step processes like lists, directions, references, recipes, and when portraying key information to non-English speaking audiences.

Modality Principle

This is a puppy

Image from stock images by Genially

Image from stock images by Genially

Modality Principle

The redundancy principle, although it could be mistaken for the modality principle, expects the removal of text during a narrated presentation to reduce sensory overloading.

Redundancy Principle

Icons from stock images by Genially

Don't do
(Answer: Repeat)

Redundancy Principle

The coherence principle minimizes or removes the "stuff and fluff" so all concepts are highlighted, deepening comprehension.

Coherence Principle

When KISS is not applied, the concepts get lost in all the "extra."


Delivers concepts faster

Connects with your audience at all levels

And makes the message more consice

Less "stuff" means more understanding

Improves comprehension of key terms

Coherence Principle

The personalization principle makes machine-to-human interaction more conversational. No robot voices, like those computer-generated or artificially intelligent speech allowed!

Personalization Principle


"What we can't do is..."

Computer Generated

"Thank you!"
"You don't have to do it this way, but I have found it is easier to..."
"At this point you should be able to..."
"Let's start here with..."
"I don't mean to imply..."

Personalization Principle

  • Bolton, B. (n.d.). Text Features Graphic Organizer and Activity. Teachers Pay Teachers. Retrieved from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Text-Features-Graphic-Organizer-and-Activity-8781924?st=04af6d065c8079993bf9584070bb5df0
  • Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2016). e-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. (4th ed.). Wiley and Sons. ISBN-13: 9781119158660Davis, G., & Norman, M. (2016). Principles of multimedia learning. Wiley University Services. https://ctl.wiley.com/principles-of-multimedia-learning/
  • Dingle, B. (2017). Pete and Repeat Fence Meme. Chapel of Hope Stories. Wordpress. Retrieved March 17, 2024, from https://chapelofhopestories.com/2017/03/04/pete-and-repeat-were-sitting-on-a-fence/
  • Gonzalez, N. (2015). Trivia Crack: Entertainment. Trivia Crack Cheats Your Friends Are Probably Using Against You. Gadget Hacks. Retrieved March 17, 2024, from https://smartphones.gadgethacks.com/how-to/trivia-crack-cheats-your-friends-are-probably-using-against-you-0160489/
  • Ottenritter, C. (2018). Man at desk with book open and headphones on to record voice for video. Audio for Video Editors. LinkedIn Learning. Retrieved March 17, 2024, from https://www.linkedin.com/learning/audio-for-video-editors-essential-terms
  • YouTube. (2022, March 10). Golden Retriever running through a beautiful snow covered forest in the mountains. Adventuring With Nala. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OH2Vt4En3no
  • YouTube. (2023, August 16). How to add voice over to PowerPoint presentations. @voices. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ir1ILbaZuHE