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Sistemas de Informação

Research and Innovation Project

conjuntos de dados estruturados, manipulados usando um Sistema de Gestão de Bases de Dados (SGBD) ou Database Management System (DBMS).

Isto é,
Bases de Dados Informáticas
  • Nos dias de HOJE o termo BASE DADOS é aplicado principalmente para fazer referência a

Base de dados

Capacidade de processar grandes quantidades de informação, tais como:

  • Sistemas de armazenamento de operações bancárias;
  • Base de dados empresariais com vários tipos de informação (ex.: vendas, funcionários, clientes, fornecedores, facturação);
  • Sistemas de reservas de companhias de aviação;
  • Sisitemas de companhias de seguros.

Sistemas de gestão de base de dados (sgbd)

Para manipular a informação foram criadas ferramentas do tipo SGBD

Um sistema SGBD permitem criar e manipular bases de dados em que os dados são estruturados com independência relativamente aos programas de aplicação que os manipulam.

Dividem-se em dois grandes grupos:

Exemplos de SGBD

GRANDE PORTEExemplos: ORACLE, Microsoft, SQL, Server, Ingres, Informix e DB2;USO PESSOAL (DOMÉSTICO) E OU DE PEQUENAS EMPRESASExemplos: MySQL, Dbase, FoxPro e o Microsoft Access.

Características de um SGBD

  • Independência dos dados;
  • Redundância controlada;
  • Integridade dos dados;
  • Abstração dos dados;
  • Acesso simultâneo aos dados;
  • Facilidade de obtenção de informação atualizada;
  • Diferentes vistas da base de dados.
  • Integridade dos dados
proteger a BD de utilizadores autorizados, evitando que estes executem tarefas que ponham em risco a integridade da informação (não permitindo, por exemplo, que apagem dados de um sítio que são necessários noutro sítio da BD);

Funçoes de um sgdb

  • Segurança
deve proteger a BD de utilizadores não autorizados:

FUNÇÕES DE UM SGB

  • Controlo e acesso dos utilizadores aos dados
num sistema com muitos utilizadores, a partilha de dados tem que ser feita de modo que cada utilizador a use como se estivesse sozinho;
  • Recuperação/tolerância a falhas
sempre que ocorram falhas, por exemplo do disco, de hardware ou de software, o SBD tem de reconstruir a BD até ao momento em que ocorreu a falha.

vantagens dos sgbd's

Flexibilidade da informação

Maior organização

Independentes dos programas de aplicação

Tabelas Normalizadas
Tavelas não normalizadas
Diagramas E-R
  • Etapas do Método
  1. Etapa1- Diagrams E-R: Análise das necessidades de informação e elaboração do Modelo E-R.
  2. Etapa 2- Tabelas não normalizadas: Transformação do Diagrama E-R num conjunto de Tabelas
  3. Etapa 3- Tabelas Normalizadas: normalização das Tabelas

Modelo lógico

a great title

  • Para descrevermos a nossa aplicação em termos lógicos (Desenho Lógico), vamos utilizar o Modelo Relacional, também chamado Modelo E-R (Entidade-Relação).

Entidade: Objetos ou conceitos que possuem um conjunto de características comuns. Compostas ou caracterizadas por um conjunto de atributos. Corresponde a uma tabela de uma Base de dados.

  • Alguns conceitos e defenições:

Modelo E.R.

FINANCING

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contact

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Company Name

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activities

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Activity 01

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Activity 02

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Activity 03

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Activity 04

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Surname, Name

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Articles in indexed journals

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