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Transcript

Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Constructivism

LearningTheories

References

Behaviorism

Ivan Pavlov

Major Theorists

B.F. Skinner

John Watson

Clark Hull

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Behaviorism

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Occurs when a correct response is associated with the given stimulus. Reactive to the envirnoment, not active in learning. (Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

  • Instructional Cues
  • Practice
  • Reinforcement
(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

Major Characteristics

  • Behavior is learned from environment
All information is learned from the environment where the student is placed
  • Behavior results from stimuli-response
Information is learned and received based on stimulus that effect the student (Mcleod, 2024)

Role of Memory

Memory is not referenced as much as habits are. These habits are learned from the stimuli-response sequence. Not using the habit, or the response, is how a person forgets a memory.(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

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Cognitivism

Jean Piaget

Major Theorists

John Dewey

William James

Descartes

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Cognitivism

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Learner is actively engaged in learning. The information is not simply memorized. It is more important that the learner understands the conceptualization of the infromation.(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

  • Chunking
  • Complex Ideas
  • Simplification & Standardization
(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

Major Characteristics

  • Learn from thinking instead of response
Information is thought through and not just a response from an outside stimuli
  • Active Learning
Information is applied and understood not just rote memorization (Main, 2022)

Role of Memory

Information is stored in a logical way for the learner. Memory is an imporant aspect. When the information cannot be recalled this is forgetting.(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

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Constructivism

John Dewey

Major Theorists

Jean Piaget

Jerome Bruner

Lev Vygotsky

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Constructivism

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Information is received actively and built from experiences by the learner. Knowledge is built from interpretations of the experiences.(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

  • Introductory
  • Advanced
  • Expert
(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

Major Characteristics

  • Discovery-based learning
Information is learned by building on previous knowledge
  • Active Learning
Information is applied and understood not just rote memorization. (National University, 2023)

Role of Memory

Memory is not just the memorization of a fact of information, but the ability to understand and explain that information.(Ertmer & Newby, 2008)

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References

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Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2008). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-8327.1993.tb00605.xMain, P. (2022, December 9). Cognitivism Learning Theories: a Teachers Guide. Structural Learning. https://www.structural-learning.com/post/cognitivism-learning-theoriesMcleod, S. (2024, February 1). Behaviorism in Psychology. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.htmlNational University. (2023, August 14). Constructivism in Education: What Is Constructivism? | NU. National University. https://www.nu.edu/blog/what-is-constructivism-in-education/