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Transcript

Chess spread to Europe around 1000 from the southern mediterranean, mainly Spain. This piece shows how there was Islamic influence on the way chess pieces were made. Now flip the slide!(Do this by clicking the yellow quotation marks)

Chess piece

British Museum, chess-piece, 11thC-12thC, Britain, Europe and Prehistory, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/H_1877-0116-34

Hi! Here's more objects on the crusades

This pottery is evidence of cultural exchange as it depicts Muslim and Christian nobleman enjoying hunting together. It was made in the 12th-13th century in Syria, which would have been around the same period as the fourth crusade. Flip the slide!

Hunting pottery

British Museum, bowl, 12thC-13thC, Middle East, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/W_1931-0716-1

This floor tile was produced in Chertsey, England around the 1250s. Remember to click to flip the slide!

Floor tile

British Museum, floor-tile, 1250s, Britain, Europe and Prehistory, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/H_1885-1113-9051-9060

Glass bottle from Egypt 969-1099.Flip the slide!

Glass bottle

British Museum, bottle, 969-1099, Middle East, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/W_1894-0517-1

pitcherfnr

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These pitchers were made around 1460 in Valenica, Spain.Click the button to find out more!

Pitcher

British Museum, pitcher, 1460 (circa), Britain, Europe and Prehistory, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/H_G-614

There was also a transfer of inventions between Muslim and Christian cultures.Flip the slide!

Algebra

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, 9th century, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Jabr

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This is an astrolabe that was invented around the 9th century, however this one is from the 13th century. Now flip the slide!

Astrolabe

British Museum, astrolabe, 13th century, Middle East collection, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/W_OA-1733

These are Dinar coins, a currency in Muslim-Arabic states used also by the Crusaders.Flip the slide!

Dinar coins

Richard I, famously known as Richard the Lionheart, is depicted in the centre of the tile riding into battle on his horse during the Third Crusade (1189-92) against Saladin. Richard the Lionheart became a key symbol of the Crusades and Christianity due to his military skill and record; he was seen as a warrior of God. Nevertheless, this floor tile also represents the legacy of violence the Crusades has left behind with key military figures being glorified while ignoring the mass casualties that occurred in the Third Crusade.

An astrolabe was used to recognise stars and planets as well as other astronomical functions. It was also used to predict the condition of the seas in preparation for travel. This invention shows how the tension between the two cultures was not significant enough to impede on the transfer of new technologies. Also, war is commonly known as an important time for the inception of new ideas and technologies and this is an example of this.

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This piece of pottery was made with the sgraffito technique and is extremely insightful in showing us that there were positive interactions between the two cultures. This is different to the type of relations portrayed in Latin literature during this period. Saracens were depicted in such a way that it justified the actions of the Christian armies. They were described as ‘pagans’ and the crusades were justified as an act of vengeance against those who killed Christ. However, from the 13th century Islam was not seen as an intellectual threat or adversary to Christianity, which may explain the more positive depiction on this piece of pottery. Word key:Saracen= a muslim or arab, this name was especially used during the crusades.

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum lorem sit amet.Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam.

These pitchers are representative of how the mindset of the crusades and conflict permeated many aspects of life as the shield on the pitchers is a symbol of war and violence on a day to day object. They are both decorated with the cross of Saint George. Saint George was a Roman soldier who was put to death because of his refusal to renounce his Christian faith. This story is significant as the jugs travelled from where they were made in Valencia, to Iran. It may be the case that the people who bought these jugs were unaware of the meaning behind their design as it is unlikely that they were bought with the awareness of their symbolism of the martyr St. George.

Algebra was an important invention that came to Europe from the Abbasid Caliphate from 1000-1500 A.D. The book was an outline of the rules for solving quadriatic equations. This is an important piece of material history and was seminal to the development of mathematical knowledge in the Muslim and as well as the Christian world.

This chess piece was made in the 11th to 12th century and is made of bone. The islamic influence on its design shows that the cultural influence on the design of these pieces continued for centuries after their first introduction to Europe. Chess became widely played in upper European society from the 12th century, revealing that there was a certain degree of cultural exchange even with a culture that was villified at the time.

This bottle was produced in Egypt between 969-1099 and eventually made its way over to Italy where it was found in Calabria. It is made out of gold, silver, and niello which all point to the value of the bottle and was likely owned by one of the Italian elites. Evidence of trade is useful for a historian as it points to the relationship different countries had with each other. Evidently, Italy and Egypt had a working relationship even though Egypt was ruled by Muslim leaders and Italy by Christians. Crusades did not have an overarching impact on trade within the Mediterranean which meant that objects like this bottle still made its way to Europe.

Mostly minted by Crusade settlers in the Middle-East, this currency was used to maintain economic viability. They follow the Islamic numismatic style of Arabic inscriptions arranged in concentric circles and the cross in the middle is representative of the crusader's Christian faith.This shows that even within areas of war and occupation, relations between Christians and Muslims were able to flourish.

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum lorem sit amet.Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam.