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DEATH

Millions

Death Rates

There are several other reasons for the decline in deaths from infection, these include the following...

By the 1950s, the degenerative diseases such as heart disease and cancer. These affected the elderly more then the young due to wealth.

According to Tranter (1996), over three quarters of the decline in the death rate from about 1850 to 1970 was due to a fall in the number of death from infectious diseases like measles, small pox and tuberculosis. Deaths from infectious disesses were most common in young children and infants.

decline in death rates

He argues that nutrition accounted for half the reduction in death rates, and was important in reducing death from TB. Better nutrition increased the resistance to infection and increased the survival chances of those who did become infected. However, Mckeown does not ecplain why females, who recieved a smaller sjare of the family food supply lived longer then males. Similarly, he fails to explain why deaths from some infectious diseases, such as measles and infant diarhoea actually rose at the time of improving nutrition.

Thomas mckeown 1972

improved nutrition

The greatest fall in death rates in recent decades has comes come not from medical improvements but simply from a reduction in the number of people smoing. However, in the 21st , obesity has replaced smoking as the new lifestyle epidemic. For example, in 2012, one quarter of all UK adults were obese.Although obesity has increased dramatically, deaths from obesity have been kept low as a result of drug therapies. Harper suggests that we may have been moving to an 'American' health culture where lifestyles are unhealthy but where a long life span is achieved my use of costly medication.

smoking and diet

harper

In the 20th century,more effective central and local government with the neccesary power to pass and enforce laws led to a range of improvements in public healthj and the quality of the environment.These included improvements in housing (producing drier, ventilated, less overcrowded accomodation, purer drinking water, laws to combat the adulteraton of food and drink, the pasteurosation of milk and improved sewage disposal methods. Similarly, the clean air acts reduced air pollution, such as the smog that led to 4,000 deaths in five days in 1952.

1900

public health measures

  • Higher incomes, allowing for a healthier lifestyle
  • The decline of dangerous mental oppucations
  • Lifestyle changes, especilly the reduction in the number of men who smoke
  • Greater public knowledge of the causes of illness
  • Smaller families reduced the rate of transmissions of infection

social changes

ONE REASON FOR LOWER AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANC IN 1900 WAS THE FACT THAT SO MANY INFANTS AND CHILDREN DID NOT SURVIVE BEYOND THE EARLY REASONS OF LIFE. WE CAN NOTE THAT A NEWBORN HAS A BTTER CHANCE OF REACHING ITS 65TH BIRTHDAY THAN A BABY BORN IN 1900 REACHING ITS FIRST.

MALES BORN IN ENGLAND IN 1900 COULD EXPECT ON AVERAGE TO LIVE UNTIL THEY WERE 50. (57 FOR FEMALES)MALES BORN IN THE UK IN 2018 CAN EXPECT TO LIVE ON AVERAGE FOR 87.6 YEARS. (90.2 YEARS FOR FEMALES)

LIFE EXPECTANCY REFERS TO HOW LONG ON AVERAGE A PERSON BORN IN A GIVEN YEAR CAN EXPECT TO LIVE. AS DEATH RATES HAVE FALLEN, SO LIFE EXPECTANCY HAS INCREASED

LIFE EXPECTANCY

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CLASS, GENDER AND REGIONALDIFFERENCES

Despite the overall reduction in the death rate and the increase in life expectancy over the last 100 years, there are still important class, gender and regional differences. For example women generally live longer than men - although the gap has anrrowed due to changes in employement and in life (such as more women smoking).Similarly, those living in the North and Scotland have a lower life expectancy that those in the South, while working-class men in unskilled or routine jobs are nearly three times as likely to die before they are 65 compared with men in managerial or professional jobs.According to Walker (2011), those living in the poorest areas of England die on average seven years earlier than those in the richest areas, while the average differance in disability-free expectancy is 17 years.

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