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Transcript

1. What factors do you think impact migration?2.Do you think old people are to dependent on others?3.Do you think young people are starting to dress and act like older people?

Questions

67M IN THE UK

THE AGEING POPULATION AND MIGRATION

THE AGEING POPULATION AND MIGRATION IN THE UK

Population aging is a consequence of low birth rates and death rates and be seen as a succsessful outcome of exteneding life in old age for most people born. Population aging also challenges social providing economic security and health care for the elderly.Migration is the movement of people from one country to another . It can be volunteery or by force

Ageing population

  • In 1971, the average age of the UK population was 34, now it has risen to 39.
  • This ageing in population is caused by these factors:
1. Increasing life expectancy 2. Declining in infant mortality 3.Declining fertility

Effects of an ageing population:

  • Public services:
  • Older people consume a large portion of services like health and social care
  • One-person pensioner households- the number of pensioners living alone has increased & accounts for one in eight households.
  • The dependency ratio refers to the non-working old who are economically dependent and are provided for through tax.
  • As the number of retired people increases so does the burden on the working class

Ageism, modernity and postmodernity

  • Modern society and old age:

  • From a Marxist perspective, Philipson argues that the old are of no use to capitalism because they will no longer be productive therefore the the state is unwilling to support them adequately
  • In modern society, life is seen as structured into a fixed series of stages. Age becomes important in role allocation.

Postmodern society and old age

  • They believe that orderly stages have been broken down. This is evident through trends such as children dressing in adult styles, later marriage, and early retirement
  • Hunt argues that age no longer determines who we are or how we live. As a result, the old become a market for a vast range of body maintenance such as cosmetic surgeries, gym memeberships and anti ageing products

The impact of migration on the UK population structure

Push and Pull factors- Emigration

Age structure immigration lowers the average age of the population both directly and indirectly

Around 77% of immigrants have moved to the UK since June 2022, especially after the Ukraine war, which manifests the significant impact war has on migration

77%

MIGRATION

  • Immigration refers to movement into a society
  • Emigration refers to movement out
  • Net migration is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants and is expressed as a net increase or a net decrease due to migration

  • 1900 until the Second World War the largest immigrant group were the Irish followed by Eastern and Central European Jews who were often refugees fleeing from war
  • The 1950s-1970s black immigrants south Asian immigrants from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka followed
  • By 2021, minority ethnic groups accounted 14.4% of the population

The main reason for emigration have been economic

  • Push factors economic recession and unemployment at home
  • Pull factors- higher wages or better opportunities abroad

  • Population size is increasing
  • Net migration is high(260k in 2014), with more immigrants(583k) than emigrants(325k)
  • Increase in births- UK mothers remain low while non-UK mothers remain high & account for 25% of all births- if it wasn't for them UK population would've been shrinking

  • Directly- immigrants are generally younger e.g 2011, the average age of UK passport holders was 41 wheras that of non-passport holders living in Britain was 31
  • Indirectly-younger=more fertile=more babies therefore increase in population
  • The dependency ratio-immigrants has three effects:

  1. Immigrants are more likely to be of working age- lower DR and many older migrants return to their country of origin to retire
  2. But because younger, more children, the ratio is increased. But overtime they join the labour force and lower the DR
  3. The longer a group is settled in the country, the closer the fertility rate comes to the national average reducing their overall impact on the DR

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

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