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ECED 200Week 4

Spring 2024

Interview Assignment

Current Event Discussion # 1

Test # 1

Chapter 4 ..... Children’s Learning and Development





The leaders and events that propelled the kindergarten, preschool, and child care movements in the US.

The Story of Head Start &The Prekindergarten Story

How early childhood history influenced the launch of the national Head Start program and early education. today?

John Dewey, Patty Smith Hill- NAEYC, Caroline Pratt, Lucy Sprague Mitchell

African Americans, Native American , Hispanic/Latino in Early Childhood History; Kindergarten and Teacher Training

the contributions of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans.

John Amos Comenius, Johann Pestalozzi, Friedrich Froebel, Maria Montessori, Loris Malaguzzi

2. How European educators influenced early education practices?

Took a wider view of early childhood history....

The Changing View of Children - Children as miniature adults to the child as a citizen with rights

1. Why it is important to learn from the past?

We discussed...

Building on a Tradition of Excellence


Chapter 4: Applying What We Know about Children’s Learning and Development

Why theories matter or what relevance theories have to teachers work?

"Development refers to age-related change resulting from an interaction between biological maturation and physical and/or social experience" (Bredenkamp, 2016, p.109).

What Is Development?

Domains of Development

Emotional Development

Social Development

Cognitive Development

Physical Development





Galinsky (2010) identifies seven life skills that every child needs:

  1. Focus and self-control
  2. Perspective taking
  3. Communicating
  4. Making connections
  5. Critical thinking
  6. Taking on challenges
  7. self-directed, engaged learning

Development should be viewed holistically

Partnership for 21st Century Learning (2017):

  • critical thinking,
  • communication,
  • collaboration, and
  • creativity

Development should be viewed holistically


"[L]earning is a knowledge or skill change resulting from experience or instruction." (Bredenkamp, 2016, p.110).

What is Learning?

Understanding child development and learning helps teachers:

  1. setting and evaluating achievable goals
  2. Accurately interpreting children’s behavior
  3. Aligning curricula and developmental sequences
  4. Identify and prepare interesting topics for children
  5. Understand the affects of social and cultural contexts
  6. Identification of possible disabilities and delays

Why Study Child Development and Learning ?

Brain development results from an interaction between children’s genetic make-up and their experiences in the world.- Both positive and negative experiences affect brain development

  • Brain growth and change affect learning

Brain Development

How does the brain promote learning?The Physical Brain

  1. Neurons
  2. Synapses
  3. Migration & Differentiation
  4. Pruning
  5. Plasticity

Early childhood years are critical

  • Serve and return
  • Windows of opportunity
  • Positive experiences
  • Negative experiences

Role of Experience in Brain Development

Implications for Practice

Implications for Children

Brain Development

Threats to brain development - Toxic stress, Child abuse and neglect, Poor nutritionOptimizing development and learning - language-rich interactions, positive relationshipsThe need to gain knowledge regarding - curricula, products that enhance brain development

  • Prenatal care
  • Early experience
  • Negative experience
  • Relationships, experiences, and environments
  • Integrated and interconnected

The most debated aspects of human development are:1. Nature or nurture debate (biology or experience).2. Human development is a product of both biology/heredity and environment/experiences.3. Existence of multiple theories
  • Various dimensions of development
  • Influential in guiding practice

Child Development Theories

Early childhood’s four stages:

  • Trust versus mistrust
  • Autonomy versus doubt
  • Initiative versus guilt
  • Industry versus inferiority

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Human Development

Hierarchy of human needs:
  • Basic physical needs
  • Safety and Security
  • Belonging and love
  • Self-esteem
  • Achievement of life-goals

Maslow’s Self-Actualization Theory


Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 years) -Object permanence -Egocentrism Preoperational (2 to 7 years) -Conservation Concrete operational (7 to 11 years) - Logical

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

  • The social construction of knowledge
  • Zone of proximal development (Z P D)
  • Scaffolding
  • Language and thought
  • Self-regulation and executive function
  • Importance of play

Vygotsky and Sociocultural Theory

Many contexts influence a child’s development:

  • Microsystem
  • Mesosystem
  • Exosystem
  • Macrosystem
  • Chronosystem

Bronfenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory

In contrast to developmental theories, which are linked to age-related changes in children, learning theories are assumed to apply in the same way regardless of the learner's age.

Three major learning theorists: B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, Howard Gardner

Learning Theories

Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory

Learning is controlled by the consequences of behavior.- Operant conditioning

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Negative reinforcement
Implications of behaviorism for education - Including all children

B . F. Skinner: Behaviorism or Behavioral Theory
  • Vicarious learning
  • Self-regulated learning
  • Modeling and observational learning
- Observational learning has four phases
  1. Attention
  2. Retention
  3. Reproduction
  4. Motivation

Types of Play

  • Functional
  • Constructive
  • Symbolic
  • Games with rules

  • Becoming less valued
  • Factors that conspire against play
  • Connected to all domains of development
  • Early childhood educators deeply value play
  • Important to be clear about what types of play matter
-Why it is worth defending

The Role of Play

Total Time _ 20 min

Students Profile: Development and Learning Theories



Mrs Smith is a kindergarten teacher in an urban public school. She aims to establish a nurturing classroom where her lively students can develop the skills of cooperation and harmonious interaction. She recently assessed her students through observations and informal interviews, and has some concerns about four students.Read the student profile of your assigned child and work with group members to determine how you would address the student’s needs and behaviors.




Test #1

  • This is an in-class closed-book test.
  • It is scheduled to commence at 8:00 a.m. and conclude at 9:05 a.m. on Thursday, February 15, 2024.
  • This test consists of multiple-choice questions, with each question having only one correct answer.
  • Students who are absent without providing a valid reason and evidence will not be granted another opportunity to take the test.
  • For preparation, please ensure you have thoroughly read Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 16 of the book "Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education."
  • Additionally, review the corresponding PowerPoint slides provided and your talking points to enhance your understanding and readiness for the upcoming assessment or discussion.

Test # 1

Social development refers to interpersonal relationships, such as the ability to make friends, cooperate, and resolve conflicts

Cognitive development is a broad term encompassing thinking, intelligence, and language abilities.

Pretend play in small groups is especially valuable for promoting self-regulation because it is the one activity that requires children to regulate their own behavior, be regulated by others, and regulate others all within the same context (Leong & Bodrova, 2012)

Emotional development is the ability to regulate and appropriately express feelings.

Self-regulation is the ability to adapt or intentionally control behavior, emotions, and thinking according to the demands of the situation (Bodrova & Leong, 2012b).

Luke, who recently relocated to the area with his parents after spending most of his life on a U.S. military base in Japan, faced challenges in group play. During observations, the teacher noticed that he initially eagerly participated in the building block station activities with his new classmates and was enthusiastically immersed in the task. However, once he notices his peers effortlessly stacking blocks and creating imaginative structures. After a few unsuccessful attempts, a sense of inadequacy causes Luke to hesitate to share his designs or participate in group activities, making him leave at once and sit in a corner. When asked, Luke said, "I can not do like them."

Mike lives with his father in a thriving area of the city. He has a physical handicap that requires him to use a wheelchair. During an observation, Mrs. Smith noticed that other classmates have begun to avoid him, and former playmates are less interested in including him in their play. Children complain that Mike doesn't play and let them play. Mrs.Smith also noticed that Mike sometimes doesn't want to participate in learning activities. When asked about this he said, "It's tough for me to find friends and sometimes I don't feel like learning either."

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory is based on his belief that children learn from social interaction within a cultural context.

Gina is an only child and lives with her mom in an unsafe area of the city. During observation, it was noted that she struggled to share toys during playtime. If another child had a toy she wanted, she would frequently take it without asking. Or, if she was told to share, Gina often became aggressive and screamed or cried instead of using effective communication. When asked during an informal interview if she feels comfortable in class, Gina responded, “No, and I don’t feel like anyone likes me.”

According to this theory, learning is reflected in changes in behavior that are controlled by the consequences, either positive or negative, that follow the behavior. Using pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control behavior is called operant conditioning.

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)—the distance between the actual developmental level an individual has achieved (their independent level of problem solving) and the level of potential development they could achieve with adult guidance or through collaboration with other children.

Children first use language for conversation. Then, through the vehicle of private speech, they literally use language to talk to themselves and to control their own behavior—that is, for self-regulation (Bailey & Brookes, 2012).

The assistance, guidance, and direction teachers provide children in their ZPD is called scaffolding.

Bandura (1997) postulated that people learn not only by modeling the behavior of others, but by observing and evaluating their own.

Physical development refers to biological growth and acquisition of fine motor skills, such as drawing, and gross motor skills, such as running.

Groups allocated as:Group 1 & 5: Gina Group 2 & 6: Luke Group 3, 4 & 7. Mike You will work in your groups to:

  • First, discuss and analyze the situation.
  • Second, which development and learning theory would you apply to resolve the issue?
  • Finally, how will you resolve the situation?
  • Each group will first discuss and work in their groups ( 5-7 minutes)
  • Following that, your group will engage in a discussion with another group that is addressing the same student scenario. Explore and share your perspectives, noting both similarities and differences in your approaches. (7 -8 minutes)

Social cognitive theory (also called social learning theory) is both a behavioral and cognitive theory, and therefore serves as a bridge between those two views of learning.

Vicarious learning is based on observing the effects of other people’s behavior rather than experiencing the rewards or punishments directly.

The baby’s brain undergoes astonishing growth. Neurons are produced rapidly, and they migrate (or move) to the places in the brain where they will develop and be used. They also begin the process of differentiation—specialization for particular functions. Genes mostly direct the processes of neuron production, migration, and differentiation.