Curriculum Design Theories
Created on February 10, 2024
Elisabeth PageGrand Canyon UniversityEDU-522: Curriculum Design TheoriesDr. Heather HamtilFebruary 14, 2024
How Will You Teach?Curriculum Design Theories Presentation
Summarize the curriculum design approaches
Explain curriculum design models
Summarize the curriculum design theory
Review the curriculum design process
Learning needs a direction. If we don't know where we are going, how will we know when we get there?
The Curriculum Design Process
- What we need to teach
- Objectives, state standards, learning targets
- Math, ELA, Social Studies, etc
- How we will teach
- Activities and Engagement
- Outcomes for students
- Assessments (Şahin, 2020)
- Involves the students, teachers, aids and the classroom environment (McConnell, 2020)
What is Curriculum Design?
When designing a curriculum all parts of the educational process must be considered and included conversations about the wider goals of the curriculum (Şahin, 2020):
- Theories and beliefs
- Societal needs
- The purpose of the content and how it will be use
Thoughts to Consider
The Curriculum Design Theory
Giudance and Direction
Curriculum supports teachers in both what they need to teach, how they will teach, and how they will know when they have taught it. It can be thought of as a continuous process:
- The Intended (what we wanted students to learn)
- The Operational (what was actually taught)
- The Received (what students learned)
Franklin Bobbitt (1876–1956) is considered one of the founders of curriculum design. He saw curriculum as a guide encompassing the skills and concepts students need to learn in order to be successful members of society (State University Education, 2019). He believed education should prepare children for live as an adult..
- an orderly sequence
- support for the educator and guidance for the student learners
- provide differentiation (close the learning gaps)
- support problem solving and critical thinking skills in students
- have built in social-emotional supports
- Seek that all learners achieve the learning targets
A good curriculum should have....
Curriculum Design Models
Problem-Centered Curriculum Design
Learner-Centered Curriculum Design
Subject-Centered Curriculum Design
There are three types of curriculum design educators need to be aware of.
Curriculum Design Approaches
- Learning process is the goal
- No hard "end" to learning, continuous
- showing understanding of the overall process, the connections made during the learning, more individual based
- Learning objectives are the goal
- End result is a finished product or test
- Summative Assessment
- demonstration of knowledge aquired from learning, more standardized
Curriculum has a key role in a child's education. It is the road map of a child's entire K-12 journey. A poor curriculum can misdirect or derail a child's education; causing harm and lost learning (Ediger, 2017). All those involved in education must understand curriculum's role because it has a direct impact, good or bad, on the children we serve.
Why it Matters
McConnell, C., Conrad, P.B., & Uhrmacher, B. (2020). Lesson planning with purpose: five approaches to curriculum design. Teachers College Press. Şahin, Ü. (2020). Curriculum design approaches of pre-service teachers receiving pedagogical formation training. International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(4), 192–203.https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.29329/ijpe.2020.268.12 State University Education (2019). Franklin bobbitt (1876–1956) social efficiency movement, bobbitt's contribution. State University Education Encyclopedia. https://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1794/Bobbitt-Franklin-1876-1956.html#ixzz44VWea0Cy University of San Diego, (n.a). Curriculum design explained + 5 tips for educators. University of San Diego Professional and Continuing Education. https://pce.sandiego.edu/curriculum-design-explained-5-tips-for-educators/
As the name suggests, this design focuses on the needs of the learners. Its goal is to support students in taking ownership of their learning. This design holds that because our learners are different, their needs will be different and thus standardized learning does not work (University of San Diego (n.a). Curriculum should be adapted to fit the needs of the individual student
Learner Centered Design
Presenter's notes: slide 2
Today we are going to look at the following elements of curriculum design. Through this presentation we will
- Review the curriculum design process
- Summarize curriculum design theory
- Explain the curriculum design models
- Summarize the curriculum design approaches
Overall there are two general curriculum models; process based and product based. A product-based model seeks to guide to students towards mastery of the learning objectives (University of San Diego, (n.a). The goal is for students to demonstrate their mastery of the content through a final product or assessment. This method is concerned with students understanding the content upon completion of the learning experience, and being able to show or explain their understanding. In a process-based model, the goal is more centered around student growth; what the student learned and what skills they acquired during their learning (University of San Diego, (n.a). There is no ideal "end result" because each students' growth will be different based on their own learning journey. The teacher will review and adapt the learning experiences for the needs of the students as they move through the curriculum.
Presenter's notes: slide 11
Curriculum theory is the belief that what is taught in the classroom is all encompassing. It takes all aspects of the learning process into account and becomes a road map for teachers; one that should be reviewed and adapted to fit the needs of the students (McConnell, 2020). This means curriculum is a living, breathing, document that can empower educators in meeting the needs of their students.
Presenter's notes: slide 6
Because curriculum's goal is to guide both students and teachers, all curriculum must have these features:
- sequence that guides students through the learning process
- support for teachers to meet students needs and build success in students
- provide differentiation to help close the learning gaps
- develop and support problem solving and critical thinking skills in students
- a strong focus on meeting the social-emotional learning needs of students
- the goal of empowering all learners achieve the learning targets
Presenter's notes: slide 7
Curriculum guides the educator and the students in what they should learn, when they should learn it, and what activities and experiences will aid the learning process. It is vital that educators, those in curriculum development, and all stake-holders take time to understand the theory and application of curriculum in the classroom because what we do in the classroom matters. And it matters, because of our students.
Presenter's notes: slide 12
It is important that the curriculum reflect what is needed by the students and that it addresses their unique learning needs. Next, the theories and beliefs around curriculum development, where the curriculum will be used, and the how the content is sequenced should be considered. Finally, developers should ask what the needs of society are and whether what is being developed will meet those needs. (Şahin, 2020)
Presenter's notes: slide 5
In the problem centered design, the learning experience is centered around a real-world problem (University of San Diego, (n.a). The curriculum guides students in engaging with problems that require higher order thinking and collaboration skills to better prepare them for entering society.
Most known in education, this design focuses on subject matter content (University of San Diego (n.a). It is a singular focus curriculum meaning its goal is to teach students a specific content in a specific order. The end goal is for students to understand the details of the content being studied.
Curriculum design is what we will teach and how we will teach it. It is the combination of our learning objectives, the content, and the lessons and activities we will use in the classroom with our students, and the assessments we will use to know if students learned the desired content (Şahin, 2020). Moreover, curriculum design is not just what we write on the board or the text book we use. The design process involves the students, the teacher, the environment, and the routines and procedures of the classroom (McConnell, 2020). Curriculum design is holistic and should take into consideration all elements of the learning experience.
Presenter's notes: slide 4
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