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Philip III

Philip IV

Betting addiction in its maximum splendor?

Charles II

The Last Habsburg: Charles II’s Final Days

The Minor Austrias and their legacy: lights and shadows of a turbulent era

The King of Spain and His 30 Bastards: Philip IV’s Scandalous Legacy

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Gambling with the Crown: The Political and Social Consequences of Philip III’s Betting Habits

Made By: Diego Velazquez


He became the king of Spain and Portugal in 1598, after the death of his father. He was known for his peaceful foreign policy in western Europe, his expulsion of the Moriscos (Christians of Moorish ancestry) from Spain, and his reliance on his favourite, the Duke of Lerma, who was the first of a series of royal favourites who governed 17th-century Spain. His nick name Philip the Pieous is because he is so religious

Betting Addiction

Philip III once played a game of cards with the Duke of Lerma, his favourite and chief minister, and lost the crown of Portugal to him. The Duke then returned the crown to the king as a sign of loyalty and friendship.

Pax Hispanica

The Pax Hispanica was a period of 23 years from 1598 to 1621, when Spain disengaged from the European wars of religion that had troubled the previous century. Spain signed peace treaties with France, England, and the Dutch United Provinces, and expelled the Moriscos from its territory. Some people were happy about the Pax Hispanica because it brought stability, prosperity, and cultural influence to the Spanish Empire,

Philip IV of Spain: A King Who Loved Too Much and Too Often

Philip IV of Spain was born on April 8, 1605, in Valladolid, Spain. He was the eldest son of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria, both members of the House of Habsburg. He inherited the throne of Spain and Portugal in 1621, when he was 16 years old


Made By: Diego Velazquez

He was married twice, first to Elisabeth of France, who died in 1644, and then to his niece Mariana of Austria, who was 30 years younger than him. But most of his famous lover were María Inés Calderón, Margarita de la Cruz and María de Oñate, who led to various heirs



Maria Theresa of Spain, known as Margarita, is one of the famous heir of Philip IV of Spain, was depicted in "Las Meninas" because the favourite painter of Philip IV of Spain was Velazquez, and he depicted her in this famous painting

The Inbred King: How Charles II of Spain Became a Victim of His Own Bloodline


Charles II of Spain was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain, who reigned from 1665 to 1700. He was born on November 6, 1661, in Madrid, to Philip IV of Spain and his second wife, Mariana of Austria, who were uncle and niece This inbreeding resulted in many physical and mental disabilities for Charles, who was known as “The Bewitched”. He died without an heir, which led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the end of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.

Made By: John Closterman


As we know, Charles II was considered to be bewitched, an autopsy was performed resulting in "a very small heart of the size of a grain of pepper, the lungs corroded, the intestines putrefactive and gangrenous, in the kidney three large stones, a single testicle as black as coal and his head full of water"


Is Working Honourable?

The origin of the Golden Age in Spain is usually traced back to the year 1492, when three major events occurred: the end of the Reconquista, the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus, and the publication of the first grammar of the Spanish language by Antonio de Nebrija. These events marked the beginning of a period of political, cultural, and artistic flourishing in Spain, which lasted until the mid-17th century. Some of the most notable figures of the Spanish Golden Age include Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Diego Velázquez, and El Greco.

The Hidalgos and the Picaros

The hidalgos are the lower nobility, who claim descent from the ancient knights and have some privileges, such as not paying taxes. The picaros are the rogues, vagabonds, and tricksters, who live by their wits and often mocked the hypocrisy and corruption of the society

The Spanish Golden Age in the Shadow of War: Politics, Religion, and Art in the 17th Century

Working in the Golden Age of Spain was not a uniform experience, as different social classes, genders, and occupations had different views and expectations. Generally speaking, working was seen as a necessity for survival, but also as a way of fulfilling one’s duty to God, the king, and society. Some professions, such as nobility, clergy, military, and civil service, were considered more honorable and prestigious than others, such as merchants, artisans, peasants, and servants



As we can see in this picture, Diego Velazquez depicts the nobility in a complex and innovative way, creating a painting that blurs the boundaries between reality and illusion, and challenges the viewer’s perception


The works of art of Rubens are special because they show his mastery of the Baroque style, which emphasized movement, sensuality, and color. Rubens was influenced by the great Italian painters, such as Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, but he also developed his own original and expressive style. He painted on a variety of subjects, including religious, mythological, historical, and allegorical scenes, as well as portraits and landscapes.

The Three Masters of Baroque: Velázquez, Murillo and Rubens in the Spanish Golden Age

Murillo depicted poor people in Los niños jugando a los dados with realism and compassion, showing their daily struggles and joys. He used local models, often street children, and painted them with natural poses and expressions. He also added details of their clothing, accessories, and surroundings to create a vivid picture of their lives

The Last Habsburgs: A Crossword Puzzle on the Minor Austrias


1. The man who acted as a capable valido during this time. 3. The crisis that significantly impacted Spain during this period. 4. The gravely weakened state of the Habsburg dynasty after the Thirty Years’ War. 5. The century-long decline of the Spanish monarchy. 6. A woman who served as regent during the transition between the second and third monarchs. 8. :The war that resumed in the Netherlands during the Austrias Menores era. 10. The first of the Austrias Menores, ruled from 1598 to 1621.


2. The political characteristic that defined the Austrias Menores’ rule. 7. The last of the Austrias Menores, whose reign extended from 1675 to 1700. 9. The institution used by the Austrias Menores to delegate government responsibilities. 11. The economic and demographic challenges faced by Castilla. 12. The second monarch in this period, reigning from 1621 to 1665. 13. The century during which the Austrias Menores held power.

1. Conde Duque de Olivares. 2. Absolutism. 3. Spanish Decline. 4. Hasburg Fragility. 5. Decadencia. 6. Maria Anna Of Austria. 7. Charles II. 8. Eighty Years War. 9. Council Of State. 10. Philip III. 11. Castilian Crisis. 12. Philip IV. 13. 17th century