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Transcript

UNIT 4: MIXTURES

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INDEX

5. is it possible to separate salt and water?

4. how can we separate solid from liquids?

3. can you find buried treasure at the beach?

2. are there naturally occurring mixtures?

1. can a solid transform directly into a gas?

1. can a solid transform directly into a gas?

In a LIQUID, matter has less energy. The molecules move aound. Liquids take the shape of the container.

In a GAS, matter has a lot energy. The molecules move around constantly. Gases fill a container.

Each substance in a mixture is called COMPONENT. Mixtures can be made up of a few or many components, but none of the components are physically joined together

In a SOLID, matter has very little energy. The molecules stay in the same place and are close together

The STATE OF MATTER refers to wether something is SOLID, LIQUID or GAS.

MATTER is anything that takes up space and has a mass. All matter is made up of ATOMS. Atoms can join together to form MOLECULES. An ELEMENT is made up of only one type of atom. A PURE SUBSTANCE consists of all the same element or compound.

1. can a solid transform directly into a gas?

2. are there naturally occurring mixtures?

A HETEROGENEOUS mixture has visibly different components or stares. Oil and vinegar or cereals and milk, are examples of hetergeneous mixtures.

A HOMOGENEOUS mixture has a uniform appearance. They are often made up of the same type of molecules or compounds. Alloys, which are mixtures of different metals, blood, rain water and perfumes are examples of homogeneous mixtures.

Based on their appearance, there are two types of mixtures:

2. are there naturally occurring mixtures?

3. can you find buried treasure at the beach?

We can use MAGNETISM to separate components in a mixture that display magnetic and non-magnetic properties.We can use the attraction force of a magnet to separate the magnetic components from the non-magnetic ones.Some metals like iron and nickel have magnetic properties. On the other hand, metals like gold, aluminum and silver don´t.

When components in a mixture are combined without a chemical reaction, they keep their own properties and can be separated easily.

3. can you find buried treasure at the beach?

4. how can we separate solid from liquids?

Mixtures can be made when one substance is dissolved in another. For example, salt and water.The substance that dissolves is called the SOLUTE. The other substance is the SOLVENT. The particles are completely mixed together.An INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCE does not dissolve in a solvent. We can use FILTRATION to separate these kind of mixtures.We use a FILTER with tiny holes to separate components based on size. The component that stays behind is the RESIDUE. The component that passes through the filter is the FILTRATE.

4. how can we separate solid from liquids?

5. is it possible to separate salt and water?

DISTILLATION separates liquids from solutions. We use condensation to collect the liquid component from its gas state, so it can be used. The liquid component that boils at a lower temperature, evaporates first and passes through a cooling chamber where it condenses. This leaves one pure liquid in each recipent.

EVAPORATION uses heat to separate a soluble solid from a liquid. As the liquid is heated, it evaporates into the air, leaving the solid behind.

5. is it possible to separate salt and water?