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5. Timeline

4. Meaning of the elections

3. Key figures Involvez

2. First democratic elections

1. Historical Background

The history of democracy in Mexico dates back to the establishment of the federal republic of Mexico in 1824. After a long history under the Spanish Empire (1521–1821), Mexico gained its independence in 1821 and became the First Mexican Empire led by a realistic military man. Agustín de Iturbide. Three years later, a federal republic was created under the Constitution of 1824. However, the republic was truncated by a series of military coups, among which that of the politician-general Antonio López de Santa Anna stands out. Santa Anna exerted immense influence over the fledgling Mexican democracy until 1855, when he was overthrown by liberal politicians. The liberals wrote and ratified the Constitution of 1857, which enshrined rights such as universal male suffrage and eliminated ecclesiastical and military privileges. However, Santa Anna's overthrow caused widespread discontent among conservative Mexicans and led to a twenty-two-year conflict and two wars between conservatives and liberals. In 1862, at the invitation of Mexican conservatives, Maximilian Habsburg was crowned Emperor of Mexico after a successful French invasion of the country.

Historical Background

The first democratic elections in Mexico were held on October 15, 1911, after of just over thirty years of Porfirista rule at the level of national politics. The process prior to the holding of said elections presidential elections was turbulent, due to the General Díaz's intention to continue with the handling the reins of the country for another period presidential more.

First democratic elections

After the resignation and exile to which subdued Porfirio Díaz in May 1911, the group victor, led by Francisco I. Madero, organized into a political party that led name Progressive Constitutional Party. The Extraordinary elections were held without biggest setback in Mexico City mid-October 1911, giving as resulted in a resounding victory in favor of Madero, presidential candidate and José M. Pino Suárez, nominated by that organization policy to serve as vice president.

The presidential election of October 15 represented a substantial change in the system Mexican politician; Historically, it had suffered the factual absence of any practice democratic, but in the wake of the armed movement, A presidential succession had been given way through genuine popular elections.

Key figures Involvez

Democracy in Mexico has undergone a significant transformation throughout its history. Before becoming a democracy, Mexico went through a period of authoritarianism, where the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) dominated the political system for more than 70 years. This hegemonic party controlled government institutions and limited the opposition's possibilities to overthrow the dominant group1. However, Mexican society did not agree with living in a dictatorship, which led to different protest movements and signs of rejection of the system. Some of these movements included guerrillas, the railroad movement of 1958-1959, the doctors' movement in 1964-65, and the student movement of 1968. These events, along with the limitations of economic policies and the weakening of the regime, ultimately led to liberalization and the transition to democracy.

Meaning of the elections

This Wednesday, political violence once again dyed the 2024 electoral process red. After the shooting of Juan Pérez Guardado, an official of the municipality of Fresnillo in Zacatecas, another attack against Cecilio Murillo, brother of the municipal president of Sombrerete, raised alarms in the entity. The Secretary of the Government of Zacatecas, Rodrigo Reyes, confirmed the second murder of the day in the State: “This has been a complicated day in terms of security, however, our efforts to pacify Zacatecas will continue. I said it and I reiterate it: we will not take a step back. Our solidarity with his family, friends and colleagues. Our constant support and commitment to the people of Sombrerete,” he shared through his X account.