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Theories and strategies of virtual teaching Definition and reasons. Blended learning, Flipped classroom and Collaborative learning

Dr. Uriel Ruiz Zamora

Online, distance, blended, etc. education?

Theories of open and distance education

Contents

Pedagogical theories for instructional design

Online learning-teaching models

Online, distance, blended, etc. education?

1. communication between the teacher and the learner must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical or other devices. (Moore, 1973: 664)2. Transactional distance .Different technologies have different properties that allow, enable or afford certain kinds of transactions to take place between the people using those technologiesThe new affordances created new, more active, learning opportunities (Brown, 1984).The emergence of the so-called Web 2.0 is) used to support more active engagement by learners with content, in line with contemporary theoriesof learning.

‘distance education’ in this book refers to pedagogical practices that exploit the affordances of available technologies and our understanding of how students learn, to facilitate key transactions taking place at a physical and/or temporal distance between learners, teachers and learning and assessment activities. This definition applies as much to the online teaching and learning activities of mainstream HE institutions as it does to those of specialist, niche, distance education universities. It encompasses online learning, blended learning and a range of technologies, including printed resources delivered to students by post or by other means (Carlsen et al., 2016). In the following chapters we shall refer to these various forms as simply ‘distance education’

Theories of open and distance education

Pedagogical theories for instructional design

Behaviorism

Behaviorism equates learning with changes in either the form or frequency of observable performance.

Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following (possible current ID applications are listed in brackets [ ] following the listed principles): ♦ An emphasis on producing observable and measurable outcomes in students [behavioral objectives, task analysis, criterion-referenced assessment] ♦ Pre-assessment of students to determine where instruction should begin [learner analysis] ♦ Emphasis on mastering early steps before progressing to more complex levels of performance [sequencing of instructional presentation, mastery learning] ♦ Use of reinforcement to impact performance [tangible rewards, informative feedback]

Cognitivism

Cognitive theories stress the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structures and, as such, are closer to the rationalist end of the epistemology continuum (Bower & Hilgard, 1981).

Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following (possible current ID applications are listed in brackets [ ] following the listed principles): ♦ Emphasis on the active involvement of the learner in the learning process [learner control, metacognitive training (e.g., self-planning, monitoring, and revising techniques)] ♦ Use of hierarchical analyses to identify and illustrate prerequisite relationships [cognitive task analysis procedures]♦ Emphasis on structuring, organizing, and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing [use of cognitive strategies such as outlining, summaries, synthesizers, advance organizers, etc.] ♦ Creation of learning environments that allow and encourage students to make connections with previously learned material [recall of prerequisite skills; use of relevant examples, analogies]

Constructivism

Constructivism is a theory that equates learning with creating meaning from experience (Bednar et al., 1991).

The following are several specific assumptions or principles from the constructivist position that have direct relevance for the instructional designer (possible ID applications are listed in brackets [ ] following the listed principles): ♦ An emphasis on the identifi cation of the context in which the skills will be learned and subsequently applied [anchoring learning in meaningful contexts]. ♦ An emphasis on learner control and the capability of the learner to manipulate information [actively using what is learned]. ♦ The need for information to be presented in a variety of different ways [revisiting content at different times, in rearranged contexts, for different purposes, and from different conceptual perspectives]. ♦ Supporting the use of problem solving skills that allow learners to go “beyond the information given” [developing pattern-recognition skills, presenting alternative ways of representing problems]. ♦ Assessment focused on transfer of knowledge and skills [presenting new problems and situations that differ from the conditions of the initial instruction].

Online learning-teaching models

“Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product (Laal & Ghodsi, 2012).They are text based, not oral;They are asynchronous: participants can log in at any time, and from anywhere with an Internet connectionMany discussion forums allow for ‘threaded’ connections, enabling a response to be attached to the particular comment which prompted the response

flipped learning is to provide opportunitiesfor communication between students during class time as they work together to solve a problem.“Think about flipped learning as ‘more about a mindset: redirecting attention away from the teacher and putting attention on the learner and learning’.

“Blended learning is the thoughtful integration of classroom face-toface learning experiences with online learning experiences” claimed Garrison and Kanuka (2004). “John Watson stated “Blended learning, combining the best elements of online and face-to-face education, is likely to emerge as the predominant teaching model of thefuture”. It can be concluded that Blended learning is integrating traditional face-to-face learning with technology and distance learning.

task

Design an activity using Blended learning model

Design an activity using Flipped classroom

Nombre Apellido 20XX

Design an activity using Cpllaborative learning

Acividad 04

Nombre Apellido 20XX