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unit-10 Ancient Greece

mediterranean.Asia minor (now turkey) later became part

5.2. Sciences

The naturalenvironment

5.1. Arts

2.1 The origins ofGreek civilization

2. SPARTA

2.4 Hellenistic Age (359-146BC)

4. Religion

3. Life in ancient Greek city states

2.2 Mycenaean civilization

Index

2.3 Archaic Age

2.4Classical Age

DEMOCRACY WASESTABLISHED IN ATHENS

Militaryconflicts:

3.1 The Economy

3.2 Society

3.3 Women

6.1. Architecture

The Greeks built many types of construction:

6.2. Sculpture

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The natural environment

Balkan Peninsula, the Peloponnese and other islands in the Eastern Mediterranean. Asia Minor (now Turkey) later became part.

Ancient Greece was composed of:

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Their proximity to the sea and mountains contributed to the isolation and independence of Greek cities and they got the products they needed from many sea voyages.

It had a privileged position between Asia and Africa.

mediterranean.Asia minor (now turkey) later became part

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2. The History of Ancient Greece 2.1 The origins of Greek civilization

2. The History of Ancient Greece 2.1 The origins of Greek civilization

- Greece was the origin of Western civilization.

Iron age

-7000 B.C prehistoric stone tools were found in different places in Greece

-Hellas was its ancient name (land of the Hellenes).

Early Bronze Age: 3000 BCE - 2000 BCE - Main use of copper. Middle Bronze Age: 2000 BCE - 1600 BCE - Widespread adoption of bronze (copper and tin). Late Bronze Age: 1600 BCE - 1100 BCE - Further advances in metallurgy, followed by the collapse of Bronze Age civilizations.

The Metal Age: It was divided in:

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- The center was the Peloponnese Peninsula. (Mycenae) - Livestock, agriculture and trading precious metals was its economy base. - Internal wars, the Dorian invasion and earthquakes destroyed its cities.

In actual fact, the origins of the Dorians, a pastoral people, are necessarily obscure, but it appears they originated in northern and northwestern Greece, i.e. Macedonia and Epirus. From there they apparently swept southward into central Greece and then into the southern Aegean area in successive migrations beginning about 1100 BC, at the end of the Bronze Age. This new people brought with it a new material, iron, which was of Balkan origin.

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2.2 Mycenaean civilization (1600-1200 B.C.)

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2.3 Archaic Age: Colonisation (8th- 6th centuries B.C.)

-The poleiswere governed by kings/chiefs but they lost power to the aristocracy.

-The aristocracy oppressed the weakest social groups.

- Tyrants took away the citizens rights and freedom on behalf of the merchants, peasants and artisans.

- The population grew, so the Ancient Greeks established colonies around the Mediterranean Sea to get more farmland.

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2.4Classical Age (5th-4th centuries BC)

-Important city-states:

1. ATHENS: (7th century) - Polis protested of the abuse of power of the aristocracy. - Reforms were introduced:The Citizens’Assembly(Ekk lesia)was introduced by Solon the Lawmaker.

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DEMOCRACY WAS ESTABLISHED IN ATHENS:

a. The Ekklesi elected magistrates and voted on laws. b. Magistrates carried out decisions and held public office in administration and army.c. The Council (Boule) were chosen by drawing of lots.

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- There was an Oligarchy(power held by a small group of people).- The polis was ruled by two kings, twenty eight elders (Gerousia) and five officials (ephors). - Kings performed civil and religious functions. - Gerusia presented projects to the Popular Assembly (Apella). - The ephors represented the Apella (controlled the actions of the kings and made sure the laws were obeyed). - Lycurgus the Lawmaker wrote the laws that ruled Sparta.

2. SPARTA

-Sparta was known for being bellicose

a) The Persian War (494-479 B.C.): Athens organised the Delian League and sent powerful fleet to conquer the Persians.

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Military conflicts:

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2.4 Hellenistic Age (359-146BC)

In the 4th century B.C, the kingdom of Macedonia started to conquer Greek cities (Macedonia was governed by a hereditary Monarchy).

-King Philip II began the expansion of Macedonian ́s territory including Greece.

-His son Alexander The Great created the biggest empire in the Ancient World.

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3. Life in ancient Greek city states

In the centre of Ancient Greek cities was an acropolis (a religious space, which was fortified and stood on the highest part of the city)

The cities inhabitants met in the agora (the public square) to talk about politics and buy and sell products.

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AGORA

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3.1 The Economy

• Agriculture (mainly vines and olives) was very important. The Greeks also kept bees and livestock: sheep, goats, pigs, donkeys and mules.

• Crafts: Greek artisans were good at metal and leather but also made pottery, textiles and perfumes.

• Products were sold in the market. There was also trade with the colonies which brought a lot of money to the cities because of the taxes charged on the goods that went through the ports.

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3.2 Society

• There were two main groups in society:

• CITIZENS: aristocrats, merchants and farmers who could vote, be elected to hold public office and take part in political life. They had also to pay taxes.

• NON-CITIZENS: foreigners with no political rights (mainly artisans or traders) who had to pay special taxes, could go to the public gymnasium, serve in the army and buy goods.

• There were also SLAVES who were not free (worked in agriculture, crafts and domestic service)

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• Greek women could not hold political positions. •They had more freedom in Sparta than in Athens

3.3 Women

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4. Religion

• The greeks believed in many gods (according to mythology, the gods lived in Mount Olympus) • They believed in heroes• They also believed in oracles (messages sent from the gods that only the priests could interpret)• They made offerings to and worshipped their gods (each city their own) • The temple was the house of the gods• The Olympic Games were held every four years in honour of the God Zeus

Greek Gods

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5. Arts and sciences

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• 5.1. Arts

- Philosophy: Greek thinkers tried to explain the origin of human beings and everything that surrounded them.

- Literature: the Greeks invented the theatre and also wrote epic poems (like the Iliad and the Odyssey)

- History appears for the first time in Ancient Greece

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5.2. Sciences

The Greeks had a great knowledge of the following sciences: - Mathematics (Pythagoras) - Physics (Archimedes) - Medicine (Hippocrates) - Astronomy (Aristarchus of Samos proved that the Earth was spherical and orbited the sun)

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6. Architecture and art

• 6.1. Architecture:

Columns provided support for a building. They were made in white stone and later coloured. Depending on the type of column there were three styles of Greek architecture.

Doric

Ionic

Corinthian

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• Temples: dedicated to the gods • Tombs: where people were buried • Theatres: where they showed comedies and tragedies • Stadiums: where they held races and fights between athletes. • Hippodromes: where there was horse- racing and charriot-racing • Gymnasiums: places where they did physical exercise.

The Greeks built many types of construction:

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Temple

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Theatres

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Gymnasium

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Stadium

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Some Greek cities had a grid- like layout, colonnades and arcades.

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6.2. Sculpture

• Greek sculpture focuses on the human form and shows and ideal of beauty, proportion and balance.

• It developed over the three periods:

Archaic

Classical

Hellenistic

Sculpture (evolution)

ARCHAIC PERIOD: made of stone; rigid posture; big eyes; geometrical.

CLASSICAL PERIOD: made of bronze and marble and later painted in bright colours. Gods, goddesses, and athletes; proportional; expression and movement

HELLENISTIC PERIOD: made of marble. Scenes of daily life; portraits of every day people, politicians and philosophers. Very expressive and tragic.

Boy from 1st year of ESO who deserves a 10 for this project

Eduardo Carrillo Gutierrez:

Creadores:

Jaime Borrego Pérez:

Gabriel Cara Gerez:

Boy from 1st year of ESO who deserves a 10 for this project

Boy from 1st year of ESO who deserves a 10 for this project

- The empire (after the death of Alexander the Great) was divided into three Hellenistic kingdoms:

a. Macedonia and Greece.

b. Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia and the Old Persian Empire.

c. Egypt.

- Between the 2nd and 1st century B.C. Rome made up a great empire and took control of the Greek territories.

The Bronze Age:

Early Bronze Age: This period began around 3000 BCE and lasted until approximately 2000 BCE. Copper was primarily used during this time. Middle Bronze Age: Spanning from around 2000 BCE to 1600 BCE, this era witnessed the widespread adoption of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. Late Bronze Age: Occurring from about 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE, this period saw further advancements in metallurgy before the collapse of Bronze Age civilizations.

1. Cretan or Minoan civilization (3000-1450 B.C.):

- The center was the island of Crete. - King Minos ruled in the city of Knossos.-Cretans knew about writing. - Traded throughout the Mediterranean and exported ceramics, textiles and bronze objects

b) The Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 B.C.):

The Greek states fought each other:

Athens wanted to control the Dellian League and forced polis to stay in the association.

Sparta opposed: some supported Sparta and others Athens. Sparta won and imposed an oligarchy over Athens