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Learning Theories Part 2

Socialcultural Learning Theory

Main theorist:Lev vygotsky

Characteristics of Sociocultural Theory

  • Dependent on social interaction
  • Differs between cultures
  • Zone of Proximal Development
  • Emphasis is on the process of cognitive learning
  • Language is the basis
(Main, 2023)

Role of Memory

  • Culture shapes memory and provides strategies to support memory functions.
  • Cognitive learning is a result of cultural values and beliefs that aid in memory (Mcleod, 2024)

How Learning Occurs

  • Language promotes cognitive learning (inner speech and external speech)
  • Learning is based on a social process and interactions with others
  • Exchange of experiences and thought is verbally shared
  • Knowledge is co-constructed
  • Learning is implemented personally after taught
(Mcleod, 2024)

Types of Learning Best Explained by Theory

  • Scaffolding or providing supports/chunking material/use of technology
  • Paring or grouping heterogeneously by using a More Knowledgeable Other
  • Constructivism
  • Language rich activities

Connectivism Learning Theory

Major Theorist: George SiemensStephen Downes

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Role of Memory

  • Information is always changing, forcing the brain to remember the most important and most current information
(WGU, 2021)


  • Influenced by the increase of technology
  • Based on making connections of prior knowledge to form new knowledge known as “nodes” and
  • “links”
  • Takes place outside of an individual
  • Consists of 8 principles
(WGU, 2021

Types of Learning Best Explained by Theory

  • Technology based opportunities (games, simulations, social media)
  • Collaboration within a community/multiple viewpoints
(WGU, 2021)

How Learning Occurs

  • Students are “nodes” in a network and make connections (links) with others to continually learn
  • Knowledge is shared among a community/network
  • The learner creates their own learning experience
  • Embraces multiple perspectives and diversity among networks/ No hierarchy
(WGU, 2021)

Malcolm Knowles

Adult Learning Theory


  • Has 6 principals that are distinctly different than the way children learn
  • Has a bottom-up approach. Adults learners identify gaps in learning and take initiative
  • Learners into trainers approach
  • Self guided to obtain individual goals

Andragogy Definition: the art and science of helping adults learn.

How Learning Occurs

  • Adults learn best from each other (Jarre, n.d.)
  • Have time to collaborate
  • Observing other's skills
  • Sharing experiences

Role of Memory

  • Adult brains are less malleable than children's.
  • More difficult to change and create new connections
  • Possible to obtain learning by memory due to brain plasticity (Pace, 2020)