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Transcript

This Virtual Science Teachers interactive is a work in progress. Feel free to use it, but be sure to come back later when it is complete too! Suzanne

This interactive is brought to you by Virtual Science Teachers. Copyright Virtual Science Teachers 2022

Climate Change

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Carbon Dioxide Levels on the Rise

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The Great Barrier Reef

Mauna Loa Observatory

Click on the location of the Muana Loa Observatory.

Greenland Ice Sheet

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Norway

Amazon Rainforests

This part of the interactive has not be developed yet.

This section on Norway, a country that is leading the way on alternative energy sources, is coming soon.

This section on the importance of the role of rainforests in absorbing CO2 is coming soon.

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/ocean-coasts/ocean-acidification

NOAA began measurements in 1974, and the two research institutions have made complementary, independent observations ever since.

The Mauna Loa Weather Observatory

Continue

photo credit: NOAA

https://www.noaa.gov/news-release/increase-in-atmospheric-methane-set-another-record-during-2021

Your challenge is to find out how scientists study the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere and how CO2 levels have changed over time.

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/ocean-coasts/ocean-acidification

NOAA began measurements in 1974, and the two research institutions have made complementary, independent observations ever since.

Scientists have been measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth's atmosphere at Mauna Loa Observatory for many decades.

Data Source: NOAA

NASA, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

CO2 sensors measure the concentration of CO2 in the air .

Click on the CO2 sensor.

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/ocean-coasts/ocean-acidification

NOAA began measurements in 1974, and the two research institutions have made complementary, independent observations ever since.

Some of the CO2 measurements made at Mauna Loa Observatory are provided in this data table.

It'd be really helpful to see this data in a graph!

Click on the data table to graph the CO2 data!

Average Atmospheric CO2 at the Mauna Loa Observatory

Data Source: NOAA

NASA, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

CO2 analyzers measure the concentration of CO2 in the air by measuring the absorption of electromagnetic waves in air samples.

Click on the points on the graph that correspond to the data in the data table. The first point is completed. When all 7 points have been added to the graph, they will connect.

write a title here

introduction

Position vs. Time

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Average Atmospheric CO2 at the Mauna Loa Observatory

Average Atmospheric CO2 at the Mauna Loa Observatory

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Average Atmospheric CO2 at the Mauna Loa Observatory

Nice graph!Continue

Data Source: NOAA

In 1960, about of every 1 million air particles were carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules. Since then, the concentration of carbon dioxide has by almost parts per million.

Check

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CO2 levels dropped

Average Atmospheric CO2 at the Mauna Loa Observatory

Continue

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements clearly show that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing.But why?

Click on a carbon dioxide molecule.

Sometimes...to understand the present, it helps to understand the past.

Scientists have come up with a clever way to better understand our atmosphere's past.

It involves REALLY old ice!

Continue

Ice sheets and glaciers contain ice that has been frozen for up to 800,000 years.The deeper the ice, the older it is.

Click on the part of this ice sheet that is the oldest.

Scientists drill ice cores from ice that froze at various times throughout history.

Click on the ice core.

Click here for photo credit.

By Photo by Lonnie Thompson, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University. - http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/globalwarming/gallery.html, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3293068

The bubbles inside the ice are as old as the ice.Scientists analyze these bubbles and learn about the composition of the atmosphere when the ice froze.

Click on the ice core.

Click here for photo Credit

By Eli Duke - Flickr: Antarctica: WAIS Divide Field Camp, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27770126

By studying the bubbles in really old ice, scientists have been able to estimate the levels of carbon dioxidein the atmosphere for the past 800,000 years.

Click on one of the points on the graph that represents a low concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere during the past 800,000 years.

The dashed line shows the increase in CO2 over the last 100 years.

What happened to CO2 levels over the last 100 years?

CO2 levels dropped.

CO2 levels remained about the same.

CO2 levels increased to over 100 ppm over the previous high.

Last 100 Years

Your response is not correct.Look at the graph more closely and try again.

Your response is not correct. Look at the graph more closely and try again.

That's correct. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased to levels that are MUCH higher than any time during the past 800,000 years.

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (blue line) has increased along with human emissions (gray line) since the start of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. Emissions rose slowly to about 5 billion tons per year in the mid-20th century before skyrocketing to more than 35 billion tons per year by the end of the century. NOAA Climate.gov graph, adapted from original by Dr. Howard Diamond (NOAA ARL). Atmospheric CO2 data from NOAA and ETHZ. CO2 emissions data from Our World in Data and the Global Carbon Project.

Whatchanged?

Click here to find out what caused the dramatic increase in CO2 levels.

Last 100 Years

Starting during the industrial revolution in 1750, humans began burning fossil fuels at higher and higher rates.Burning fossils fuels releases a lot of extra CO2 into the atmosphere.

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (blue line) has increased along with human emissions (gray line) since the start of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. Emissions rose slowly to about 5 billion tons per year in the mid-20th century before skyrocketing to more than 35 billion tons per year by the end of the century. NOAA Climate.gov graph, adapted from original by Dr. Howard Diamond (NOAA ARL). Atmospheric CO2 data from NOAA and ETHZ. CO2 emissions data from Our World in Data and the Global Carbon Project.

Click on the part of the graph that corresponds to the time that human activity caused increased CO2 levels.

Human activity results in the release A LOT OF CO2!

Check

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In 1960, about of every 1 million air particles were carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules. Since then, the concentration of carbon dioxide has by almost parts per million.

Click here to read an awesome ASU article on planton.

When the coral is stressed, the algae that live on, feed, give the coral color leave.

Select the human activities that increase the levels of CO2 into the atmosphere.

Not quite. Try again.

Check

Continue

Transportation: Planes, trains, cars, etc.

The generation of electricity from burning coal and other fossil fuels

Building new stores, homes, office buildings, and roads

Factories- such as those that make computers, clothes, and bicycles

Planting trees.

Farming

Continue

Scientists have also been able to use very old ice core samples to determine the CO2 levels of the atmosphere during the past 800,000 years.

As a result of these measurements, scientists have learned that human since the start of the industrial revolution has caused CO2 levels to increase to levels well beyond the levels that have been normal for Earth's atmosphere during the past 800,000 years.

Scientists, such as those at the Muana Loa observatory, have been and recording the CO2 levels in the atmosphere for the past several decades.

Check

Not quite. Try again.

  • human activity
  • volcanic activity
  • tree planting

  • measuring
  • skiing
  • going to the beach

In summary...

  • increase
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  • remain constant

  • ice core
  • soil
  • cheese

Continue

Photo Credit

By Photo by Lonnie Thompson, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University. - http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/globalwarming/gallery.html, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3293068

photo credit: NOAA

https://www.noaa.gov/news-release/increase-in-atmospheric-methane-set-another-record-during-2021

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/ocean-coasts/ocean-acidification

NOAA began measurements in 1974, and the two research institutions have made complementary, independent observations ever since.

The Mauna Loa Weather Observatory

Continue

photo credit: NOAA

https://www.noaa.gov/news-release/increase-in-atmospheric-methane-set-another-record-during-2021

You completed the challenge! Maybe one day you'll be a scientist that helps us better understand the changes in our atmosphere.

photo credit: NOAA

https://www.noaa.gov/news-release/increase-in-atmospheric-methane-set-another-record-during-2021

The code word forthe Google Form is:

scientist

What is the first letter of your last name?

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You successfully completed the challenge! Maybe one day you'll be a scientist that helps protect coral reefs.

Continue

Returnto map.

Welcome to Greenland!

Click on the glacier.

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by an ice sheet (one gigantic glacier).

An INCREDIBLE amount of frozen water!

Click on Greenland in the image of Earth.

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

As more CO2 and other greenhouse gases are added to the atmosphere, the Earth gets warmer.Evidence that the Earth is warming can clearly be seen in Greenland...WHERE THERE'S LOTS OF ICE!

What happens to solid water (ice) when it warms up?

It disappears.

It turns from solid to liquid. In other words, it melts.

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

image credit

Images courtesy Anders Bjørk, copyright of the Natural History Museum of Denmark/Tholstrup (top) and Danish Geodata Agency (bottom). Caption composed by Kathryn Hansen based on content from Katy Human (CIRES). Published December 16, 2014Data acquired 2013 https://visibleearth.nasa.gov/images/84893/new-insight-from-old-snapshots-of-greenland/84895w

image credit

The glaciers that make up the Greenland Ice Sheet are melting faster than they have melted in the past 12,000 years.

Greenland in early 1900s

Greenland in 2013

Click on the image that shows a river where ice used to be.

That's right, ice melts when it warms up.

Images courtesy Anders Bjørk, copyright of the Natural History Museum of Denmark/Tholstrup (top) and Danish Geodata Agency (bottom). Caption composed by Kathryn Hansen based on content from Katy Human (CIRES). Published December 16, 2014Data acquired 2013 https://visibleearth.nasa.gov/images/84893/new-insight-from-old-snapshots-of-greenland/84895w

Welcome to the Greenland!

Click on the glacier to learn more about how glaciers melt.

Scientists have realized that not only are warmer air temperatures melting the glaciers, but warmer salt water is also causing the giant chunks of ice to break off at a high rate.

Welcome to the Greenland!

Answer the questions throughout this video from NASA.The code word you need to move on is at the end of the video.

melt

Enter the code word provided at the end of the video.

lowercase letters only

Continue

This graph show the daily melt area for the Greenland Ice Sheet from April 1 through October 31, with 2021 shown in blue, 2020 in green line, and 2019 in orange. The grey areas show the average daily melt area for 1981 to 2010.

Click on the point of the graph that corresponds to the largest median area melted between 1981 and 2010.

*hint

The dark grey line shows the median melt area of the years 1981 to 2010. The red arrow is pointing to the peak of that line and corresponds to the largest median melt area of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the years 1981 to 2010.

This graph shows the daily melt area for the Greenland Ice Sheet from April 1 through October 31, with 2021 shown in blue, 2020 in green line, and 2019 in orange. The dark grey line shows the medium melt area for 1981 to 2010.

This graph shows the daily melt area for the Greenland Ice Sheet from April 1 through October 31, with 2021 shown in blue, 2020 in green line, and 2019 in orange. The dark grey line shows the medium melt area for 1981 to 2010.

Click on the point of the graph that corresponds to the largest melt area between 1981 and 2021.

Largest median area melted between 1981 and 2010

*hint

Find the highest point of all the lines on the entire graph.

This graph show the daily melt area for the Greenland Ice Sheet from April 1 through October 31, with 2021 shown in blue, 2020 in green line, and 2019 in orange. The grey areas show the average daily melt area for 1981 to 2010.

  • human activity
  • volcanic activity
  • tree planting

  • measuring
  • skiing
  • going to the beach

Largest area melted between 1981 and 2021

  • increase
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Great work! The code for this location is 150.

Largest median area melted between 1981 and 2010

  • ice core
  • soil
  • cheese

Returnto map.

When comparing heDuring the month of August in 2019, almost 1,000,000 square kilometers of the Greenland Ice Sheet melted. This is about 3 times the largest area that melted for the median of melted areas between 1981 to 2010.

This graph show the daily melt area for the Greenland Ice Sheet from April 1 through October 31, with 2021 shown in blue, 2020 in green line, and 2019 in orange. The grey areas show the average daily melt area for 1981 to 2010.

Click on the point of the graph that corresponds to the largest melt area between 1981 and 2021.

As a result of the warming atmosphere and oceans, Greenland’s ice is melting rapidly, and the melt is accelerating. Since 2002, sea levels have risen by about 2.5 inches, or 63 millimeters. Sea level rise increases coastal flooding and eventually will inundate some coastal communities.Reference: Watkins et al., 2015, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011547; GRACE and GRACE Follow-On JPL RL06Mv2 data

Click on Greenland on the Image of Earth

As a result of the warming atmosphere and oceans,Greenland’s ice is melting rapidly, and the melting rate is accelerating.

Where does the melted ice go?

The End Fountain

To Space

Into the Ocean

Yes, the melted ice from Greenland's Ice Sheet and other glaciersaround the world goes into the oceans and causes their levels to increase.

Click on Greenland on the Image of Earth

As the world's ice sheets and glaciers melt, the sea level _________.

Sea Level Variations Since 1993

Since 1993, Earth's sea levels have increased by about __________.

100 millimeters(or 10 cm)

Credit: Climate.nasa.gov

50 millimeters(or 5 cm)

1000 millimeters(or 100 cm)

Since 1993, Earth's sea levels have increased by about __________.

Sea Level Variations Since 1993

100 millimeters(or 10 cm)

50 millimeters(or 5 cm)

1000 millimeters(or 100 cm)

Credit: Climate.nasa.gov

100 millimeters (10 cm- about the height of a pencil), may not seem like a big increase in sea level.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

But, it's A LOT of extra water.

Click on the water.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Higher sea levels result in more tidal floods, which are floods that happens due to normal high tides.

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Click on street that is flooded due to tidal flooding.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Just a small increase in sea levels causes an increase in floods that happens due to normal high tides.

As a result of the higher sea levels,Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Click on diagram that shows tidal flooding.

high tide

Before increase in sea levels

After 10 cm increase in sea levels

high tide

high tide

High Tide

High Tide

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Higher sea levels more tidal floods, which are floods that happens due to normal high tides.

As a result of the higher sea levels,Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Click on street that is flooded due to tidal flooding.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Another result of the higher sea levels,is that storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Click on the line in the diagram that represents the sea level before the storm surge during normal high tide.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Another result of the higher sea levels,is that storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Continue

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Storm surges are caused by winds and pressure changes during hurricanes and other storms.

Click on the arrow in the diagram that represents the storm surge water level.

Click on the line in the diagram that represents the storm surge water level .

normal high tide

high winds

storm surge

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

With increased sea levels, the storm surges reach much farther onto land.

Click on the line in the diagram that represents the storm surge water level after the increase in sea levels.

Click on the arrow in the diagram that represents the storm surge water level after the increase in sea levels.

Before increase in sea levels

After 10 cm increase in sea levels

normal high tide

high winds

high winds

normal high tide

storm surge

storm surge

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

Continue

Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Rising sea levels increases coastal floods, which causes incredible damage to ecosystems and properties.

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

But, it's A LOT of water. And that water builds up unevenly during various weather events.

Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

As a result of the higher sea levels,storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

But, it's A LOT of water. And that water builds up unevenly during various weather events.

Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Tidal flooding has doubled in the United States in the last 30 years.

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

But, it's A LOT of water. And that water builds up unevenly during various weather events.

Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

As a result of the higher sea levels,storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Notgood

Humans release a lot of CO2 into the atmosphere.

The extra CO2 traps heat that would otherwise escape into space.

As Earth warms up, glaciers and ice sheets melt faster.

Water from melted glaciers and ice sheets cause sea levels to rise.

Higher sea levels have caused tidal flooding to double in the US over the last 30 years.

Higher sea levels cause storm surges to be frequent and more extreme.

Great Work! Click here.

Drag the images so they are above correct captions.Once all are correct, a message will appear.

Sea Levels (mm)

Flooding around the world has increased dramatically as a result of the higher sea levels.

In addition to amplifying storm surge because the water starts at a higher level, sea level rise increases high-tide flooding, which has doubled in the United States over the past 30 years and is expected to rapidly worsen in the coming decades.

Nice work!The code for this section is 2552.

As a result of the higher sea levels,Storm surges are more common and more extreme.

Returnto map.

https://climate.nasa.gov/quizzes/sea-level-quiz/

Just for fun, try out this sea level quiz from NASA.

What is the trend of this graph?

Data source: NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). Credit: NASA/GISS

Why is the Earth's surface warming up so quickly?

Graphic credit and information

Image by Katharine Hayhoe, from the 2017 Climate Science Special Report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program.

Worst Case Scenario

Best Case Scenario

Click here to learn what is causing the Earth to warm up so quickly.

This warming trend is concerning... small changes in temperature have big consequences.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Common_Era_Temperature.svg

Efbrazil, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Efbrazil, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio, Key and Title by uploader (Eric Fisk), CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

By RCraig09 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=102770581

Click on the ultimate source of energy for life.

Yes, sunlight provides the energy needed for all life on Earth to live and grow.Sunlight also provides the energy that keeps Earth warm enough for life.

Click on the plant.

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Click on a part of the diagram that represents sunlight energy that heats the Earth.

This image shows how sunlight (yellow) enters the atmosphere and heats the Earth.

sunlight

infrared waves

This gif was made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Click on a part of the diagram that repsents infrared energy leaving Earth's atmosphere.

As the Earth is warmed by the sunight, it emits infrared energy (red).Some of the infrared energy escapes the atmosphere and travels out to space.

sunlight

infrared waves

This gif was made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Click on a part of the diagram that repsents infrared energy that gets trapped within Earth's atmosphere.

Some of the infrared energy gets trapped within the atmosphere by greenhouse gases like CO2.

sunlight

infrared waves

This gif was made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Click on a one of the images that represent life that would not be possible if it were too cold on Earth.

Without the greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold for life to exist.

sunlight

infrared waves

This gif was made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Click on the image that shows all of the infrared energy escaping Earth's atmosphere.

High concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

These gifs were made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

These three images simulate what happens to infrared energy withvarying levels of green house gases in the atmosphere.

Medium concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

No geenhouse gases

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Earth's temperature would be _________ if there were no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

High concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

These gifs were made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

Yes! In the first image, all of the infrared energy leaves Earth's atmosphere.

Medium concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

No geenhouse gases

much higher

much lower

about the same

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Earth's temperature would be _________ if there were no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

High concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

These gifs were made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

That's correct, without greenhouse gases the Earth would be MUCH colder.What happens if the level of greenhouse gases increases to high levels?

Medium concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

No geenhouse gases

much higher

much lower

about the same

Click on the image that shows the most infrared energy getting trapped in Earth's atmosphere.

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

Earth's temperature _________ as greenhouse gases are added to the atmosphere.

High concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

These gifs were made using PhET's greenhouse gas simulation. Click here to use it!

You got it. The third image shows the most infrared energy being trapped by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Medium concentration of CO2 and other geenhouse gases

No geenhouse gases

decreases

does not change

Click on the image that shows all of the infrared energy escaping Earth's atmosphere.

increases

Simulation by PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder, licensed under CC-BY-4.0 (https://phet.colorado.edu).

Almost 80% of Greenland is covered by a giant sheet of ice.

warm

Enter the code word provided at the end of the video.

lowercase letters only

Some radiation from the sun reflects off the greenhouse gases, such as CO2, and Earth's atmosphere.Most of the radiation is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and warms it.

Sunlight

Great work! For a quick review, answer the questions throughout this video from the US EPA.The code word you need to move on is at the end of the video.

This video was created by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

CONTINUE

1900

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1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

This graphic illustrates the change in global surface temperature relative to 1951-1980 average temperatures.

Credit: NASA Scientific Visualization Studio

Graph Credit: Carbon Brief

Click here to get a sharable link.