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Learning Theories Part 2

Alexandra Mendez GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY EDU-522: CURRICULUM DESIGN THEORIES DR. HEATHER HAMTIL Febuary 7th, 2024

The Role of memory

Types of Learning

How learning occurs

The Theorists

Characteristics

Socio-cultural learning theory emphasizes that learning happens through social interactions, with individuals internalizing cultural norms and behaviors. Parents and teachers are key influences, and historical and cultural contexts shape learning paths. Language is vital for communication and learning. Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development highlights the importance of social support in learning.

Sociocultural

Connectivism views learning as a networked process, emphasizing making connections between diverse sources of information, people, and experiences. It highlights the importance of recognizing patterns, staying updated on current knowledge, and utilizing digital technologies effectively. Learners are encouraged to actively participate in networks, collaborate with others, and engage in ongoing learning.(Pappas, 2023)

Types of Learning

How learning occurs

The Role of memory

The Theorists

Connectivism

Characteristics

Adult learning is distinguished by self-directedness, where individuals take control of their educational journey. Relevance plays a crucial role as adults seek knowledge that directly applies to their lives. Prior experiences enrich their learning process, serving as a foundation for acquiring new skills. Autonomy is valued, allowing adults to dictate the pace and mode of instruction. Collaboration and feedback further enhance adult learning, while flexible formats accommodate diverse schedules and preferences.(Andreev, 2023)

The Role of memory

The Theorists

Types of Learning

How learning occurs

Adult Learning

Characteristics

Pappas, C. (2023). Everything you need to know about the connectivism learning theory. eLearning industry. https://elearningindustry.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-connectivism-learning-theoryClark, K. R. (2018b). Learning Theories: Constructivism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 180–182.Andreev, I. (2023). Adult learning theories. Valamis https://www.valamis.com/hub/adult-learning-theories#self-directed-learningMcleod, S. (2023, July 26). Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of cognitive development. Simply psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html

Reference

Learning takes place through social interaction and collaborative efforts. Vygotsky asserted that optimal learning happens within the "zone of proximal development," signifying the difference between what a learner can achieve independently and what they can accomplish with guidance from someone more knowledgeable.(Pappas, 2023)

Memory functions as a relational tool, enabling individuals to access, process, apply, create, and share information. (Pappas, 2023)

1) Culture: historical background, heritage2) Language: dialect, symbols3) Proximity: between parents-child, teacher-student (Mcleod, 2024)

Experiential learning emphasizes active engagement and practical application over memorization or repetition, fostering deeper understanding and retention of knowledge. Through real-world experiences and hands-on activities, learners develop problem-solving skills and critical thinking abilities, becoming active participants in their own education.

  • Action learning in small group or real-world situation
  • Self-directed learning
  • Experimental or project based
  • Transformational Learning Can involve online platform to continue learning(Andreev, 2023)

In the framework of sociocultural theory, memory is regarded as a phenomenon shaped by social constructs. The manner in which we recall information is influenced by the cultural and social settings in which we initially acquire and retain that information.(Mcleod, 2024)

Learning is inherently social, not an isolated pursuit. This suggests that students enhance their learning effectiveness through interaction with peers, exchanging opinions, ideas, and experiences. Such interaction encourages students to freely express their thoughts. Consequently, this theory advocates for students' active involvement in the learning process. Unlike traditional teaching methods where knowledge is transmitted by the teacher, in this framework, knowledge emerges through collaborative endeavors among students (Pappas, 2023).

(Andreev, 2023)

Malcom Shepherd Knowles

Knowles formulated five assumptions about adult learners, which he termed "andragogy," highlighting problem-solving within real-world or personal contexts. This stands in contrast to the content-oriented nature of children's learning, known as "pedagogy."

This capacity involves creating connections among different fields, ideas, and concepts. It entails linking disparate elements to form a cohesive understanding or to spark creative thinking.(Pappas, 2023)

The learning plan design should focus on three elements: the learner, the teacher and the learning resources. The individuals should take the initiative to: Define their personal educational needs and educational goals Select the appropriate methods and materials for their learning Self-evaluate their learning outcomes.(Andreev, 2023)

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George Siemens

The prominent figure linked with connectivism is George Siemens, a Canadian educator and researcher. Siemens posits that learning involves interconnected networks, encompassing social interactions, experiences, and digital integration, all of which contribute to recognizing patterns. This interconnectedness among diverse sources and knowledge forms the basis of learning, according to Siemens' theory.(Pappas, 2023)

Lev Vygotsky

The major theorist associated with sociocultural theory is Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist who lived from 1896 to 1934.(Mcleod, 2024)