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Approaches to Psychology

Ranjana Ram 4AClick on the "+" to Learn More

Behavioral Approach

Humanistic Approach

Biological Approach

Evolutionary Approach

Psychodynamic Approach

Cognitive Approach


Things To Know


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Things To Know


Things To Know


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Sociocultural Approach

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Brain: CerebrumSchizophrenia: Excess of Dopamine = Changed BehaviorTreatment Options:

  • Medications (ADHD Pills, Adderall, etc.)
  • Hormones (Serotonin, Dopamine, etc.)

Things To Know

  • It is believed that sometimes, people will perform actions without being aware of them.
  • Father of Behaviorism: B.F. Skinner
Treatment Method: Operant Conditioning

Focus: Actions vs. Mental Process

Behavioral Approach Focus

Evolutionary Psychologists Belief:

  • All Human Behaviors = Human Survival and Reproduction
  • People "Strive to Survive" and will emit certain behaviors to do so

Things To Know

Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning: Without the food even being present, the dogs would salivate if they heard the bell.

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John Watson’s Little Albert Experiment: Scared of a white rat that he was very fond of by pairing the rat with a loud noise.

Law of Effect: Responses that produce a satisfying effect will likely be repeated

Operant Conditioning Chamber/ Skinner Box: Trained rats and other animals to complete a voluntary task; if the task was successful, then the animals were rewarded

Focus: Impact of people's culture, religion, ethnicity, gender, income level, and overall environment on the individuals they become.

  • Lev Vygotsky
Treatment Options: Cross-Cultural Exposure

Sociocultural Focus

Focus: Best Version of Yourself

  • Carl Rogers
    • One of the Founders
  • Abraham Maslow
    • Hierarchy of Needs
Treatment Options: Self-Actualization

Humanistic Approach Focus

Carl Rogers:

  • Believed that environments may not always be ideal and can prevent one from reaching their full potential
Abraham Maslow:
  • Stage 1: Physiological Needs
  • Stage 2: Security
  • Stage 3: Love & Belonging
  • Stage 4: Esteem
  • Stage 5: Self Actualization
  • Stage 6 (in some cases): Self Transcendence

Things To Know

Freud Psychoanalysis

  • Free Association - “Talking Cure”
  • Dream Analysis
    • Manifest Content
    • Latent Content

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Jean Piaget Cognitive Development:

  • Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage (birth - 2 yrs)
    • Infants understand the world through movement and sensation
    • Object Permanence
  • Stage 2: Pre-Operational (2-7 Years Old)
    • Uses words and pictures to represent ideas
    • Egocentrism
  • Stage 3: Concrete Operational Stage (7 - 11 years old)
    • Logical thinking starts
    • Parental Manipulation
  • Stage 4: Formal Operation Stage (12 - 18 years old)
    • Logical thinking expands
    • Problem-solving skills develop

Things To Know

Approaches To Psychology

The Approaches to Psychology were created in order to treat patients with mental disabilities in relation to their behavior. Psychologists came up with 7 Approaches:

  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic
  • Sociocultural
  • Biological
  • Evolutionary
  • Psychodynamic
Through this lecture, we will dive deep into these different approaches.

Focus: Behavior = Genetics, Nervous System, Brain, etc.Treatment Options:

  • Maintaining Homeostasis
  • Psychopharmacology

Biological Approach Focus

Focus: Charles Darwin's Evolutionary Theory; Survival of the Fittest

  • Survival attracts certain behaviors

Evolutionary Focus

Focus: Unconscious thoughts, past actions, and memories affect our behaviorPsychoanalysis

  • Free Association
  • Dream Analysis

Psychodynamic Focus

Focus: Think + Perception = Behavior

  • Memory, Problem-Solving, Decision-Making, and Perception
  • Jean Piaget Cognitive Development
Treatment Options: Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Approach Focus


  • What Social Groups Are You A Part Of?
Cross-Cultural Exposure: Exposing people to other cultures and people.Lev Vygotsky: Russian psychologist
  • He felt that children were born with different beliefs and mindsets.

Things to Know