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Transcript

Learning Theories Part 2

Bailey CarbaughGrand Canyon UniversityEDU-522: Curriculum Design TheoriesDiann RichardsonFebruary 6, 2024

Sociocultural

DESCRIPTION

ROLE OF MEMORY

MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC

The sociocultural theory deals with the importance of culture and society in developing and shaping individuals. The sociocultural theory suggests that people's psychological development is guided by mentors of people that are in their lives. It also suggests that people's attitudes and cultural beliefs are affected by their learning process.

  • Vygotsky emphasized social contributions to the development process, whereas Piaget emphasized self-initiated discovery.

Sociocultural theory is based on the work of Lev Vygotsky. He was a soviet psychologist, who thought that peers, caregivers, parents and the culture are responsible for building higher-order functions (Main, 2023). Lev Vygotsky believed that the development depends on social interaction and it can differ between cultures (Main, 2023).

Connectivism

DESCRIPTION

ROLE OF MEMORY

MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC

Connectivism is a learning theory that explains how Internet technologies have created new opportunities for people to learn and share information across the web ( UNT, 2024).

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Learning occurs through connections that a learner forms between the concepts and the ideas. According to Siemens, learning networks have dimensions that consist of social and cultural and are influenced by technology (Learning Theories, 2024).

Adult Learning Theory

DESCRIPTION

ROLE OF MEMORY

MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC

Adult Learning Theory or andragogy is a concept that highlights how adults learn the best and respond. Adult Learning Theory is something that trainer's are expected to know when training adults. Adult Learning Theory is a simple theory to grasp for anyone who trains or teaches adults ( O'Neill, 2024).

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The role of memory with connectivisim is where memory involves active patterns in a learner's CURRENT network (Learning Theories, 2024). Memory occurs when the patterns of connection aligns with the learner's network. The memories wait to transfer to new learning contexts (Learning Theories, 2024).

Role of Memory

  • Culture plays an important role and is one of the most important characteristics of Vygotsky's theory.
  • Language is another important characteristic. Vygotsky stated that the role of language is related to the learning process. He stated that social structures determine people's working conditions and social interactions which does shape their cognition, beliefs, attitudes and perception of reality ( Allman, 2024).

Major Characteristic

Stephen Downes is a specialist in online learning technology and new media. Downes has developed and deployed a series of progressively more innovative technologies, beginning with multi-user domains (MUDs), open online communities, and personal learning environments.

George Siemens and Stephen Downes

George Siemens is a Canadian expatriate professor at the University of Texas at Arlington. He is a writer, theorist, speaker, and researcher on learning, networks, technology, analytics and visualization, openness, and organizational effectiveness in digital environments. He is known for creating one of the first massive open online courses (MOOCs), a “landmark” in open teaching.

The role of memory in adult learning theory, it is a lot like social learning theory. Memory in adult learning is about retention. For adult learning to be successful, the adult must be able to retain new information. For adult learners to retain information, the information needs to be meaningful and the information must be able to be understood. The learner then must make the connection to the new information so that they can apply the new information (Adult Learning Theory, 2024).

Role of Memory

  • There are three (3) types of learning that occur.
Social interaction: Vygotsky states that social interaction shapes their cognition, beliefs, attitudes' and perception.​Language: ​Vygotsky viewed language as a direct result of symbols and tools that emerge within a culture. Language aids in the construction of understanding (Mcleod, 2024).Zone of Proximal Development: Where the learning takes place. Vygotsky strongly believed that learning should be matched with a child's development level. The level should be connected between development and learning to determine the actual and potenial levels of development.

Types of Learning

  • Vygotsky refers to memory as "higher mental functions" (Mcleod, 2024).
  • Culture provides children with the tools of intellectual adaptation that allows them to use basic mental mental functions more effectively/adaptively.
  • Tools of intellectual adapation is a tem for thinking and problem-solving strategies that children internalize through social interactions with knowledgeable people (Mcleod, 2024).
  • Vygotsky believed that memory was limited by biological factors, but culture determines the type of memory strategy we develop (Mcleod, 2024).

The Role of Memory

  • Vygotsky believed that young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning, but believed that a child learns through social interaction with a skillful tutor (Mcleod, 2024). He refers to this as cooperative or collaborative dialogue; the child yearns to understand through actions or instructions from the tutor and then internalizes the information for self-regulation or as a guide ( Mcleod, 2024).

How Learning Occurs

Sociocultural theory is based on the work of Lev Vygotsky. He was a soviet psychologist, who thought that peers, caregivers, parents and the culture are responsible for building higher-order functions (Main, 2023). Lev Vygotsky believed that the development depends on social interaction and it can differ between cultures (Main, 2023). Vygotsky strongly believed that the community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." (Mcleod, 2024).

Types of Learning

The types of learning that occurs with Adult learning, the learning is practical and self-directed. Adult learners need action learning, experimental learning, and project-based learning. Adult learing theory is more of a learning theory where adults need hands on versus just a lecture (Learning Theories,2024). Online-learning has taken center-stage for adult learning as it is self-directed and convenient (Learning Theories, 2024).

American educator Malcolm Knowles introduced the learning theory in 1968. Malcolm adapted his concept for adult learners. The concept revolved around the adult learning experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learn and motivation to learn (New England Institute of Technology, 2021).

Malcolm Knowles - Major Theorist

There are six (6) main characteristics of Adult Learning TheoryAdult learning is self-directed. Adult learners are involved in the learning process and make their chocies relevant to their learning objectives (NCDA, N.D.)Adult learning uses prior knowledge and life experiences with their current knowledge base and activities (NCDA, N.D.)Adult learning is goal-oriented. Adult learning and motivation to learn is increased when the lesson is relevant and connected to real-life situations (NCDA, N.D.)Adult learning is relevancy-oriented. Adults learn best when the assigned task is aligned to their own learning goals. Activities need to be engaging (NCDA, N.D.)Adult learning is practical. For adult learners to be successful in their learning experience, it is important to take the theoretical concepts and make them practical. Create practical activities and make the real life situations clear (NCDA, N.D.)Adult learning encourages collaboration. Adult learners thrive in creating collaborative relationships. Adult learners are more productive when they are considered a colleague by their instructors . They want their work to be acknowledged (NCDA, N.D.)

Major Characteristics

Major Characteristic

There are four (4) key characteristics/principles for connectivism learning theory.

  • Autonomy- concept of choice, control and independence. The expectations of this characterisitic is that it reduces the power structures and minimize traditional instructional processes (Tschofen & Mackness, 2024).
  • Connectedness - the ability to connect, care and belong personally to a conversation, environment and relating to the the understanding (Tschofen & Mackness, 2024).
  • Diversity-within the connectivism terms, diversity should be structured to maximize diversity to foster creativity and diversity among members (Tschofen & Mackness, 2024).
  • Openness - People should be able to free flow ideas and articats within the system. Connectivism is more about have a system that is structured to not impede openness and people do not have some barrier between them and the system as a whole (Tschofen & Mackness, 2024).

Learning occurs when the the information that is being taught is self-directed and problem-centered versus content-oriented. Adult learning is an independent process where the learner takes charge of the material and the concepts that are relevant. In order for the adult learner to be successful, the learner needs to have experience for the learner to have a basis for learning to occur (Learning Theories). Adult learning is also alike social learning as the environment, tools of the language, objects and images help to create meaning for the adult learner. Adult learning theory is learning by reflecting on life experiences (Learning Theories, 2024)

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Connectivism learning types are more for complex tasks where creation and problem-solving are the tasks. The activities that are the best approach for a connectivist theory should be done with social and technology-based learning (Learning Theories, 2024).