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Perfect Modals

PERFECT MODALS

Should have done

Introduction

Would have done

Could have done

Can't have done

Must have done

INDEX

Ought to have done

Organiza la secuencia en torno a un tópico o concepto que quieres impartir en un período de tiempo determinado (normalmente corto). Tiene que tener sentido por sí misma y tiene que orientarse a que el alumnado adquiera el conocimiento.

Objetivos de aprendizaje. ¿Qué capacidades van a adquirir nuestro alumnado cuando termine la secuencia?

Planifica, selecciona los contenidos y piensa en qué estrategias, procesos y destrezas quieres poner en práctica con tus alumnado para que alcance los objetivos que has fijado.

“Divide tu secuencia en fases o pasos. Te proponemos las más comunes pero puedes ampliarlas e incluso cambiar sus nombres”.

Ve de lo sencillo a lo más complicado. El aprendizaje debe ser gradual, progresivo. Parte de lo que ya sabe nuestro alumnado para ir construyendo conocimiento nuevo. Encadena las actividades propuestas con un hilo conductor que las dote de sentido y de significado. Cada actividad debe ser un peldaño que les permita progresar en su aprendizaje.

Ten presente desde el inicio cómo vas a evaluar esta secuencia y qué criterios vas a aplicar. Y por supuesto recuerda establecer el entregable. Es decir, qué tareas tienen como resultado un entregable por parte de tu alumnado y en qué formato quieres que te lo entreguen. Las actividades que componen la secuencia deben ser un camino orientado a que el alumno la supere con éxito por eso es fundamental que desde el principio compartas lo que esperas.

Incita a tu alumnado a resolver, investigar, reflexionar y crear. Déjales improvisar. Genera espacios abiertos de debate en los que puedan expresar libremente sus opiniones

Perfect Modals

Modal verbs are often used to discuss present or future actions, but we use ‘perfect modals’ to talk about actions, events or possibilities in the past. A ‘perfect modal’ is a modal verb combined with a present perfect verb form. We often speak about the past, and we often need to speak about the past in order to explain mistakes or guess about possibilities. The forms used in the next slides illustrate the typical uses of perfect modals.

Introduction

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Would have done

1: Part of the third conditional.

  • If I had had enough money, I would have bought a car (but I didn't have enough money, so I didn't buy a car).
2: Because 'would' (and will) can also be used to show if you want to do something or not (volition), we can also use would have + past participle to talk about something you wanted to do but didn't. This is very similar to the third conditional, but we don't need an 'if clause'.
  • I would have gone to the party, but I was really busy. (= I wanted to go to the party, but I didn't because I was busy. If I hadn't been so busy, I would have gone to the party.)
  • I would have called you, but I didn't know your number. (= I wanted to call you but I didn't know your number, so I didn't call you.)
  • A: Nobody volunteered to help us with the fair B: I would have helped you. I didn't know you needed help. (= If I had known that you needed help, I would have helped you.)

Would have done

Could have done

1: Could have + past participle means that something was possible in the past, or you had the ability to do something in the past, but that you didn't do it. (See also modals of ability.)

  • I could have stayed up late, but I decided to go to bed early.
  • They could have won the race, but they didn't try hard enough.
  • Julie could have bought the book, but she borrowed it from the library instead.
  • He could have studied harder, but he was too lazy and that's why he failed the exam.
  • Couldn't have + past participle means that something wasn't possible in the past, even if you had wanted to do it.
  • I couldn't have arrived any earlier. There was a terrible traffic jam (= it was impossible for me to have arrived any earlier).
  • He couldn't have passed the exam, even if he had studied harder. It's a really, really difficult exam.

Could have done

Could have done

2: We use could have + past participle when we want to make a guess about something that happened in the past. In this case, we don't know if what we're saying is true or not true. We're just talking about our opinion of what maybe happened.

  • Why is John late? - He could have got stuck in traffic.
  • He could have forgotten that we were meeting today.
  • He could have overslept.
We can also choose to use might have + past participle to mean the same thing:
  • He might have got stuck in traffic.
  • He might have forgotten that we were meeting today.
  • He might have overslept.

Could have done

Can't have done

1: To express a degree of certainty of an event in the past; second, to frame a conditional phrase for a past event.

  • Bryan can’t have committed the crime as he was in another country at the moment of the murder.
  • Sally can’t have been hungry as she had already had two regular pizzas a little while earlier.
In the above examples, the speaker is expressing a degree of certainty about the events. Evidently, the speaker is saying that there was no way Bryan committed the crime as he was elsewhere when the murder was committed. Similarly, in the second example, the speaker is refusing to believe that Sally was hungry since she’d already eaten enough just a while ago. As you can see, Can’t Have (Been) is used only when you’re referring to an event in the past. So, don’t let the “can’t” lead you to think it can be used in the present tense.

Can't have done

Must have done

Must have done

1: Is used when you assume that another person has completed a given action, irrespective of whether the action has been done or not by that person. People use "must have" when they have a pretty strong reason or evidence for thinking something. You don't use "must have" when you're just making a guess about something you don't know about.

  • I gave you that homework yesterday. I know you must have done it.
  • A: Where are Deanna and Jun? B: They must have left already.

Should have done

Should have done

1: Should have + past participle can mean something that would have been a good idea, but that you didn't do it. It's like giving advice about the past when you say it to someone else, or regretting what you did or didn't do when you're talking about yourself. Shouldn't have + past participle means that something wasn't a good idea, but you did it anyway.

  • I should have studied harder! (= I didn't study very hard and so I failed the exam. I'm sorry about this now.)
  • I should have gone to bed early (= I didn't go to bed early and now I'm tired).
  • I shouldn't have eaten so much cake! (= I did eat a lot of cake and now I don't feel good.)
  • You should have called me when you arrived (= you didn't call me and I was worried. I wish that you had called me).
  • John should have left early, then he wouldn't have missed the plane (= but he didn't leave early and so he did miss the plane).
2: We can also use should have + past participle to talk about something that, if everything is normal and okay, we think has already happened. But we're not certain that everything is fine, so we use 'should have' and not the present perfect or past simple. It's often used with 'by now'.
  • His plane should have arrived by now (= if everything is fine, the plane has arrived).
  • John should have finished work by now (= if everything is normal, John has finished work).
  • We can also use this to talk about something that would have happened if everything was fine, but hasn't happened.
  • Lucy should have arrived by now, but she hasn't.

Ought to have done

Ough to have done

1: You use ought to have with a past participle to indicate that something was expected to happen or be the case, but it did not happen or was not the case.

  • Basically the system ought to have worked.
  • The money to build the power station ought to have been sufficient.