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Transcript

Behavorisim

Learning Theories

Cognitivism

Constructivism

References

By Rachael Spry

Behaviorism

Memory

Characteristics

Learning

Who?

John B. WatsonB. F. SkinnerIvan Pavlov

- observable behavior- uses scientific methods - uses conditioning processes - rejects the study of unobservable mental processes

- minimal emphasis on memory- immediate consequences- environmental influence- behavior shaped by consequences

- classical conditioning- operant conditioning- reflexive responses- goal - directed behavior

Cognitivism

Memory

Characteristics

Learning

Who?

Jean Piaget

- internal mental processes- information processing- individual differences- constructivism

- integral role- storage and retrieval- long term memory- cognitive structures

- active mental processing- problem solving- schema development - social interaction

Constructivism

Memory

Characteristics

Learning

Who?

- active engagement- scaffolding- reflection and iteration- personalized knowledge

- dynamic and active- personal constructs- sociocultural context- adaptive learning

Lev Vygotsky

- active participation - social collaboration- personal meaning- flexible learning environment

References

Jensen, R. (2023). Behaviorism. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health.

Clark, K. R. (2018). Learning Theories: Cognitivism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 176–179.

Kretchmar, J. (2021). Constructivism. Salem Press Encyclopedia.