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Southern Europe

Module 7 Lesson 3


  • Describe the physical geography of Southern Europe.
  • Describe the culture of Southern Europe.


Mediterranean Sea




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Southern Europe is a warm region bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Within this region lie the countries of Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. All of them are at least partly located on large peninsulas. The region has a temperate climate, with mild winters and warm summers.

Olá Travelers! Welcome to Southern Europe.

Label each country by dragging the name to its location on the map.

Mamma mia! Its a MAP of Southern Europe.





Click me for the key!


Let's talk about it!

Portugal is Spain's smaller neighbor on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory includes many islands in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Madeira Islands and the Azores( called the Hawaii of Europe on the TikTok). Its mainland territory is rocky in the north and covered in plains in the south.The climate is temperate, with hot summers and mild winters. Southern Portugal receives a bit more rain and is warmer than the north.

Pasteis de Nata- delicious egg custard tard

Tinned Fish

Bacalhau (Salt Cod)

Infer: Based on Portugal's location, what type of food will be featured?


Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes a group of islands in the Atlantic called the Canary Islands. Its mainland territory includes mountains, lowlands, and a plateau.Spain has a temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. It receives moderate amounts of rainfall. The southern part of Spain is generally warmer than the rest of the country.



Running of the Bulls in Pamplona


Pyrenees Mountains


Italy occupies the large, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula and several islands, including Sicily and Sardinia. Like other countries in the region, most of Italy has a temperate climate, although the mountainous areas in the north are colder. It gets moderate rainfall and has mild summers and winters.

Neapolitan pizza


Countryside of Tuscany

Cacio e pepe


Greece extends over a mountainous peninsula and more than 2,000 islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The Greek Archipelago is a cluster of islands belonging to Greece. The largest, Crete, is a center of Greek culture and history. Greece generally has mild weather, with warm summers and cool winters. It receives an average amount of rainfall.

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Review: What were some of the major achievements of Ancient Greece?


Did someone say peninsulas?




Label each peninsula by dragging the name to its location on the map.

Balkan Peninsula

Iberian Peninsula

Italian Peninsula

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Review- Have you been paying attention?

Mountains and Water! Oh My!

Label each feature by dragging the name to its location on the map.

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The Alps



Extension: Which two mountain ranges border Southern European countries?How could this impact culture?

Mediterranean Sea

Southern European countries have a limited supply of natural resources. With the region's location near major bodies of water, fish have always been an important resource. However, overfishing has caused serious declines in the fish supply in the last few decades. The region also has limited farmland, forests, minerals, and energy resources.

Natural Resources

Click on each image to learn more.

Culture of Southern Europe

Check Your Knowledge

Check Your Knowledge

Check Your Knowledge

Check Your Knowledge

As part of the 5 themes of geography, we know that regions are areas categorized by similar features. Answer the following question below in complete sentences.

Sentence Frames: optional in use but a great way to get you started

  • The countries in Southern Europe share...
  • The countries have similar....

Word Bank

  • temperate
  • peninsula
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • natural resources

Iberian Peninsula

Spain and Portugal are on the Iberian Peninsula. This peninsula features a large plateau. There are also plains, basins, and mountains.

Greece has poor soil and a limited amount of farmland. Italy, Spain, and Portugal all have a moderate amount of fertile land, and farming is important to the economies of those countries. Their main crops include grain, grapes, olives, and citrus fruits.


Olive Farm in Italy

Greece and Italy have few mineral resources, and some minerals have already been used up. Spain and Portugal export minerals. Both countries produce copper and uranium. Portugal also has deposits of tin, and Spain has iron, lead, and gold.


Peninsula- Pieces of land surrounded by water on three sides.

Balkan Peninsula

The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The region takes it name from the Balkan Mountains. Greece occupies the southern area of the Balkan Peninsula. The country's land on the peninsula is mostly mountainous. The soil is rocky and generally poor for farming.

Achievements of Ancient Greece


Strong Military

Iliad by Homer


Art and Architecture- Columns

Philosophy- Aristotle

Southern Europe has only limited energy resources. Spain and Portugal produce some coal, oil, and natural gas for themselves, but all the countries in the region must trade for energy resources to meet their countries' needs. Italy produces natural gas, but most of its other nonrenewable energy resources have been used up. All four countries in southern Europe use hydroelectric power — power generated by flowing water. The countries also increasingly rely on wind power. In addition, Italy uses some geothermal energy — electricity made from the heat stored inside Earth. And Portugal is working on generating power from ocean waves.


Hydroelectric dam in Spain


Mediterranean Sea: A body of salt water connected to the Atlantic Ocean but almost entirely enclosed by land. It is bordered by Europe to the north and Africa to the south. Many historically important empires arose on its banks.

Forests in the region are not healthy because people have harvested so many trees for centuries or longer. Although all of southern Europe's countries have some forests, only Portugal has a major forestry industry.


Fishing is important to all the countries of southern Europe. Historically, the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean have had fertile fishing grounds. However, fish stocks have declined in recent decades, especially in the Mediterranean. And while laws try to prevent overfishing, illegal fishing is still a problem. Because of the declining fish supply, fish farming has gained importance in recent years, especially in Italy and Spain.


Italian Peninsula

Italy covers the entire boot-shaped Italian Peninsula. A mountain range runs down the center of this peninsula, with fertile plains on either side.

Archipelago- a group of islands

Temperate climate- A type of climate that experiences all four seasons and gets moderate amounts of rainfall.