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Transcript

MUSEUM

ESCAPE ROOM

Oh no!

You are trapped in the Museum of Communist Uprisings!Read about the uprising of communism in Greece and Turkey during the Cold War. Answer questions as you go to unlock rooms and escape before the timer runs out!Good Luck!

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Room 1: Greek Civil War - Pt. 1

Escape Room #1! You need to get to the Main Room to make your escape, here is a map to help you.Read and answer questions about the Greek Civil war as well as key info such as the who, the different perspectives, what, when, and where.Click on the "OPEN" button on the map to begin.

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Mainroom

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What could be in this room...?

After the occupation of Germany ended in Greece, there was a struggle for power between the parties in Greece

Question 1

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Flase

True

Perchance

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The UK supported and supplied the EDES before the Civil war started.

Question 2

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False

True

Hmmm... mayyybe

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Greece was occupied by Allied forces during World War II

Question 3

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I do declare yes

True

False

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You have completed this room!

5/5

CONTINUe

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Oh no! That's not correct! Maybe look around for some more clues

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room 3

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mainroom

Someone has stolenall the works fromthe museum

Oh, no!

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam aliquam iaculis purus, non interdum metus maximus id.Can you help us?

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Question 1

The two feuding peoples, Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots, originally had many trade organizations and meetings with each other.

True

False

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Question 2

What does Enosis mean?

Unification of Turkey and the USSR

Unification of Cyprus and Greece

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Question 3

What year was the 'fair' agreement between Turkish-Cypriots and Greek-Cypriots?

1960

1964

1954

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Question 4

The Greek-Cypriot government was supported and loved by almost all citizens

True

False

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Question 5

The Soviet Union promised aid to Cyprus out of the good of its heart! :)

No! They had their own political gain in mind!

Yes! Communists are just the sweetest!!

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5/5

You have completed this room and found your way out of the Museum! Congrats!

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That's not right! You take a wrong turn and end up deeper in the museum! :(

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Congratulations!

Start Over?

A civil war broke out in Greece after the occupation of Germany was over due to tensions between communist party and royalist parties of Greece. It was a two-stage conflict in which the Greek Communist party unsuccessfully tried to gain control of Greece.

What

THE SETTING OF THE WAR

When & Where

The Civil War begins in December of 1946, after the occupation of Germany ended in October of the same year, and ends in 1949. It took place in Greece, with intense fighting occuring in rural and mountainious regions. Big cities such as Athens and Thessaloniki saw most of the political and military activities.

INVOLVED PARTIES & BACKGROUND

Who

EAM & ELAS

The EAM is referred to as the National Liberation Front and its National Popular Liberation Army, the ELAS. These were the Communist forces in the Civil war. They helped fight off the Axis powers

Hellenic State (Greek State)

A collaborationist government formed when the Prime minister surrendered to the German Army. It became the the new regime avoiding all reference to the exiled Greek Monarchy and used Hellenic State as the country’s official name.

EDES

The National Greek Republic League was anti-communist and strongly opposed the EAM. They also helped fight off the Axis powers

UK

The UK supported and supplied the EDES before the Civil war started. During WWII, Churchill feared that Russia's advances near the Balkans would lead to the uprising of EAM, so he met with Stalin to negotiate: “So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have 90 percent predominance in Rumania, [and] for us to have 90 percent say in Greece?”

US

The Truman Doctrine allowed the US to help provide military advisors and equipment as well as economic aid to the EDES during the civil war to prevent the spread of Communism. The Greek Civil war also implemented Cold War strategies that the US used such as their policy of containment.

Ever since its founding, Cyprus, a small island extension of the Anatolian Peninsula, has been the home of dozens of different cultures and communities. Its inhabitants were Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Romans, Arabs, Crusaders, and of course: the Turks and the Greeks.Throughout the entire history of Cyprus, there had never been one Cypriot Nation, due to all of these vastly different groups of people. In addition, inhabitants rarely stretched out of their groups, and there were hardly any, if at all, inter-marriages or partnerships!

Background

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After gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1821, Greek agitation for Enosis was born. Enosis was the word for the unification of Cyprus and Greece. As the years passed, and Cyprus government changed from a Turkish to British rule (1878), this hunger only grew. After the annexation of Cyprus by Britain in 1914, the Greek Cypriot age began.

Enosis

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  • As predicted, this cause public uproar, with riots in the streets, and Turkish Cypriots feeling like refugees in their own homes.

On August 16, 1960, independance was granted to Cyprus. The republic made 'attempts' to find middle ground between Greeks and Turks, but would find nothing but a few constitutional clauses. American President Eisenhower endorsed this agreement and believed it was "a splendid achievement". This splendid achievement didn't last long, because in 1963, there were Greek Cypriots, now in control politically, demanding the removal of 8 basic articles in the 1960 agreement. All of these articles benefitted turkich Cypriot citizens.

An Unfair Unification

Ever since its founding, Cyprus, a small island extension of the Anatolian Peninsula, has been the home of dozens of different cultures and communities. Its inhabitants were Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Romans, Arabs, Crusaders, and of course: the Turks and the Greeks.Throughout the entire history of Cyprus, there had never been one Cypriot Nation, due to all of these vastly different groups of people. In addition, inhabitants rarely stretched out of their groups, and there were hardly any, if at all, inter-marriages or partnerships!

Background

  • Greek Cypriots launched a massive campaign to annex Cyprus to Greece (1955)
  • Archbishop Makarios used secret police to dispose of anyone who got in the way of Enosis

After gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1821, Greek agitation for Enosis was born. Enosis was the word for the unification of Cyprus and Greece. As the years passed, and the Cyprus government changed from a Turkish to British rule (1878), this hunger only grew. After the annexation of Cyprus by Britain in 1914, the Greek Cypriot age really began.

Enosis

“18th July 1974: My God!... Everyone is frozen with fear..the old man who asked for the body of his son was shot on the spot..The tortures and executions at the central prison... everyone is frozen with horror. Nothing is sacred to these people, and they call themselves Greeks!... we must not keep that name any longer."- Greek Cypriot Member of Parliment Rina Katselli

- Christmas, 1963: Greek Cypriots attacked Turkish Cypriots, resulting in civilian deaths and the desecration of 270 places of worshipTurkish Civilian Massacres of 1963, 1964, 1967, and 1974July 15, 1974: full scale Greek invasion of Cyprus, with the intent to take over the government completly

The Atrocities

During the entirety of the conflict, the United Nations (UN) attempted to regule peace, even sending in forces for peackeeping in March of 1964. All of these attempts failed. The US encouraged neutrality and negotiations, but found it hard to intervene without the support of the people. The people didn't seem to care about what seemed like a civil dispute in a far-away country.After withstanding many attacks on its people, Turkey decided to intervene militarily, even at the discouragment from President Johnson. Eventually, this intervention was cancelled, but Turkey did, later on, get involved to help Turkish Cypriots.

USA and USSR Involvment

The Soviet Union was interested in Cyprus because of its key trading location in the Middle East, and important British operations that were on the island. The Greek-Turkish dispute served as a way to weaken the southern flank of the West. In 1964 the USSR declared it would help Cyprus defend itself from foreign entities, with the underlying motivation to prevent Cyprus from falling into NATO's hands.

Cold War Strategies

Truman Doctrine

The U.S. viewed Greece as a crucial battleground in the emerging Cold War. President Harry Truman declared the Truman Doctrine in 1947, providing military and economic aid to Greece to resist communist influence.

Containment

The Greek Civil War first started implementing the containment policy, which spread to Europe, aiming to prevent the spread of communism beyond its existing borders.

Occupation and Power Vacuum

Causes

Greece was occupied by Axis forces during World War II. The power vacuum left by the Axis withdrawal led to a struggle for control between leftist resistance groups and conservative forces.

Leftist Resistance:

The left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM), dominated by the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), played a significant role in resisting both the Axis occupation and the return of the Greek monarchy.

British Intervention

The British, concerned about the spread of communism, intervened in support of the Greek government and monarchy. This intervention marked the beginning of foreign involvement in the conflict.