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Male Reproduction System

By Morgan and Riley

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Testosterone regulates and maintains the sex organs and sex drive, and induces the physical changes of puberty. Interplay between the testes and the endocrine system precisely control the production of testosterone with a negative feedback loop.

Hypogonadism happens when your body doesn’t make enough testosterone. It can result from a testicular issue or because your brain doesn’t properly stimulate hormone production. You can be born with this condition. It can also happen due to an injury, infection, or other condition that affects testosterone production.

Tunica vasculosa is the first thin layer of blood vessels. This layer shields the tubular interior of each testicle from further layers of tissue around the outer testicle. The next layer is called the tunica albuginea. It’s a thick, protective layer made of densely packed fibers that further protect the testes.The outermost layers of tissue are called the tunica vaginalis. The tunica vaginalis consists of three layers:Visceral layer. This layer surrounds the tunica albuginea which shields the seminiferous tubules.Cavum vaginale. This layer is a space between the visceral layer and the outermost layer of the tunica vaginalis.Parietal layer. This layer is the outermost protective layer that surrounds almost the entire testicular structure.

Fun Fact - 4 The cells divide and change until they have a head and short tail, like tadpoles.

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The male reproductive system consists of those organs necessary for reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a network of excretory ducts (epididymis, ductus deferens [vas deferens], and ejaculatory ducts), seminal vesicles, the prostate, the bulbourethral glands, and the penis.

The function of the male reproductive system is to produce sperm and transfer them to the female reproductive tract.

The final addition to semen is made by two bulbourethral glands (or Cowper’s glands) that release a thick, salty fluid that lubricates the end of the urethra and the vagina, and helps to clean urine residues from the penile urethra. The fluid from these accessory glands is released after the male becomes sexually aroused, and shortly before the release of the semen. It is therefore sometimes called pre-ejaculate

During sexual arousal, nitric oxide (NO) is released from nerve endings near blood vessels within the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. The release of NO activates a signaling pathway that results in relaxation of the smooth muscles that surround the penile arteries, causing them to dilate. This dilation increases the amount of blood that can enter the penis, and induces the endothelial cells in the penile arterial walls to secrete NO, perpetuating the vasodilation. The rapid increase in blood volume fills the erectile chambers, and the increased pressure of the filled chambers compresses the thin-walled penile venules, preventing venous drainage of the penis. An erection is the result of this increased blood flow to the penis and reduced blood return from the penis.

The dartos muscle makes up the subcutaneous muscle layer of the scrotum. It continues internally to make up the scrotal septum, a wall that divides the scrotum into two compartments, each housing one testis. Descending from the internal oblique muscle of the abdominal wall are the two cremaster muscles, which cover each testis like a muscular net.

By contracting simultaneously, the dartos and cremaster muscles can elevate the testes in cold weather (or water), moving the testes closer to the body and decreasing the surface area of the scrotum to retain heat. Alternatively, as the environmental temperature increases, the scrotum relaxes, moving the testes farther from the body core and increasing scrotal surface area, which promotes heat loss. Externally, the scrotum has a raised medial thickening on the surface called the raphae.

The continued presence of testosterone is necessary to keep the male reproductive system working properly, and Leydig cells produce approximately 6 to 7 mg of testosterone per day. Testicular steroidogenesis (the manufacture of androgens, including testosterone) results in testosterone concentrations that are 100 times higher in the testes than in the circulation.Testosterone : a sex hormoneRegulate sex drive (libido), bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass and strength, and the production of red blood cells and sperm.

Testes get their ovular shape from tissues known as lobules. Lobules are made up of coiled tubes surrounded by dense connective tissues.

Fun Fact- 3 Sperm develop in the testicles within a system of tiny tubes called the seminiferous tubules.

Inside the seminiferous tubules are six different cell types. These include supporting cells called sustentacular cells, as well as five types of developing sperm cells called germ cells. Germ cell development progresses from the basement membrane—at the perimeter of the tubule—toward the lumen.

The foreskin contains a dense concentration of nerve endings, and both lubricate and protect the sensitive skin of the glans penis. A surgical procedure called circumcision, often performed for religious or social reasons, removes the prepuce, typically within days of birth.corpus cavernosum: either of two columns of erectile tissue in the penis that fill with blood during an erectioncorpus spongiosum: (plural = corpora cavernosa) column of erectile tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection and surrounds the penile urethra on the ventral portion of the penisglans penis: bulbous end of the penis that contains a large number of nerve endings

Fun Fact - 1 A male who has reached puberty will produce millions of sperm cells every day!

The process of spermatogenesis begins with mitosis of the diploid spermatogonia. Because these cells are diploid (2n), they each have a complete copy of the father’s genetic material or 46 chromosomes. However, mature gametes are haploid (1n), containing 23 chromosomes—meaning that daughter cells of spermatogonia must undergo a second cellular division through the process of meiosis.

  • spermatogenesis: formation of new sperm, occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
  • spermatogonia: (singular = spermatogonium) diploid precursor cells that become sperm
  • spermiogenesis: the transformation of spermatids to spermatozoa during spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis begins with the mitotic division of spermatogonia (stem cells) to produce primary spermatocytes that undergo the two divisions of meiosis to become secondary spermatocytes, then the haploid spermatids. During spermiogenesis, spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa (formed sperm)

From each epididymis, each ductus deferens extends superiorly into the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal in the abdominal wall. From here, the ductus deferens continues posteriorly to the pelvic cavity, ending posterior to the bladder where it dilates in a region called the ampulla (meaning “flask”).epididymis: transport sperm from the rete testes to the vas deferens.ductus deferens: (also, vas deferens) duct that transports sperm from the epididymis through the spermatic cord and into the ejaculatory duct; also referred to as the vas deferens

Testosterone, an androgen, is a steroid hormone produced by Leydig cells. The alternate term for Leydig cells, interstitial cells, reflects their location between the seminiferous tubules in the testes. In male embryos, testosterone is secreted by Leydig cells by the seventh week of development, with peak concentrations reached in the second trimester. This early release of testosterone results in the anatomical differentiation of the male sexual organs. In childhood, testosterone concentrations are low. They increase during puberty, activating characteristic physical changes and initiating spermatogenesis.Leydig cells: cells between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce testosterone; a type of interstitial cell

Hypogonadism happens when your body doesn’t make enough testosterone. It can result from a testicular issue or because your brain doesn’t properly stimulate hormone production. You can be born with this condition. It can also happen due to an injury, infection, or other condition that affects testosterone production.

To fertilize an egg, sperm must be moved from the seminiferous tubules in the testes, through the epididymis, and—later during ejaculation—along the length of the penis and out into the female reproductive tract.Sertoli Cells: cells that support germ cells through the process of spermatogenesis; a type of sustentacular cell Germ Cells: differentiate into gametes (spermatozoa or ova) that convey the parental genes to the next generation through fertilization.

Fun Fact- 2 Each sperm is extremely small: only 1/600 of an inch (0.05 millimeters long).

The seminal vesicles and prostate gland add fluids to the sperm to create semen.

During ejaculation, sperm exit the tail of the epididymis and are pushed by smooth muscle contraction to the ductus deferens (also called the vas deferens). The ductus deferens is a thick, muscular tube that is bundled together inside the scrotum with connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves into a structure called the spermatic cord.

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The main function of the testes is to produce and store sperm. They’re also crucial for creating testosterone and other male hormones called androgens - Testes: (singular = testis) male gonads - Androgens: any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors

The testes are located in a skin-covered, highly pigmented, muscular sack called the scrotum that extends from the body behind the penis. This location is important in sperm production, which occurs within the testes, and proceeds more efficiently when the testes are kept 2 to 4°C below core body temperature. scrotum: external pouch of skin and muscle that houses the testessperm: (also, spermatozoon) male gametebulbourethral glands: (also, Cowper’s glands) glands that secrete a lubricating mucus that cleans and lubricates the urethra before and during ejaculationspermatic cord: a bundle of nerves and blood vessels that supplies the testes; contains ductus deferens

Gametes are the reproductive cells that combine to form offspring. Organs called gonads produce the gametes, along with the hormones that regulate human reproduction.

At orgasm, ejaculation usually occurs, caused when stimulation of the glans penis and other stimuli send signals to the brain and spinal cord. Nerves stimulate muscle contractions along the seminal vesicles, prostate, and the ducts of the epididymis and vas deferens. These contractions force semen into the urethra. Contraction of the muscles around the urethra further propels the semen through and out of the penis. The neck (base) of the bladder also constricts to keep semen from flowing backward into the bladder.ejaculatory duct: duct that connects the ampulla of the ductus deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle at the prostatic urethraepididymis: (plural = epididymis) coiled tubular structure in which sperm start to mature and are stored until ejaculation

Inside the seminiferous tubules are six different cell types. These include supporting cells called sustentacular cells, as well as five types of developing sperm cells called germ cells. Germ cell development progresses from the basement membrane—at the perimeter of the tubule—toward the lumen.

Fun Fact - 5 The head contains genetic material (genes). The sperm move into the epididymis, where they complete their development.

The penis is the male organ of copulation (sexual intercourse). It is flaccid for non-sexual actions, such as urination, and turgid and rod-like with sexual arousal. When erect, the stiffness of the organ allows it to penetrate into the vagina and deposit semen into the female reproductive tract.penis: male organ of copulationprepuce: (also, foreskin) flap of skin that forms a collar around, and thus protects and lubricates, the glans penis; also referred to as the foreskincorpus spongiosum: (plural = corpora cavernosa) column of erectile tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection and surrounds the penile urethra on the ventral portion of the penis

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