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Elisabeth Page Grand Canyon University EDU-522: Curriculum Design Theories Dr. Heather Hamtil January 31, 2024

The Ways We Learn: Learning Theories Part i

Teacher is seen as the leader and students respond to stimuli provided. Types of learning include drills, repeatition, question and answer formats.

Learning oocurs through interaction with the environment or provided stimuli. Only behaviors can be observed and studied. Rewards and conquences can be motivators for behavior.

Major characteristics include the belief that internal motivators are irrealvent to learning because they cannot be measured (Clark, 2018). It is the enviromental stimuli that produces behavior.

Major theorists associated with Behaviorism are Ivan Pavlov and B.F Skinner. Pavlov's work on classical conditioning with dogs lead him to believe that even if the environment was changed, but the stimuli remained, the same behavior could be expected (Clark, 2018). Skinner's work with rats focused on positive and negitive renforment as a key to ilicit specific human behavior. He believed using renforcments could help ensure that the behavior continued or cesed (Clark, 2018).

Behaviorism

Memory has no role as thinking processes are not measureable. Instead, learning is simply considered the attainment of new knowledge with no discussion on how that knowledge is stored or blended into the schema (Clark, 2018).

Pavlov

Skinner

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Teachers have a direct impact on student behavior by how they structure the environment. If teachers provide speicifc incentives to students with the expected behavior as the key to earning the incentive, th belief is that students will comply to the expected behavior.

Learners construct their own knowledge by interacting with new experiences and adding this information to what they already know. They construct new meaning based upon their current schema (WGU, 2020).

In this theory, learning is done through collaboration, with students being active members of their learning. The teacher acts as a facilitator and information is presented in an interactive, student-centered manner.

This theory holds that learners have the capacity to learn new information. Thus, memory plays an importent role as new learning is built upon previously knowledge.

Constructivism

The major prinicples of this theory are that learning is built upon more learning. It is the learner, not the teacher, who must construct meaning from what they experience (Passey, 2018)

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Jean Piaget and William Perry are considered the theoriest behind Constructivism. Unlike behaviorism, they believed in focusing on what is happening inside the learner's mind and how the brain constructs and adapts to new information (Graduate Student Instructor, (2016).

Piaget

Perry

The goal is to have learners consesntly thinking about their thinking. This theory supports learning by thinking aloud and self-reflection, metacognition, and the ability to make and analyze mistakes.The teacher acts as a guide for students; posing questions and modeling thinking (WGU, 2020).

The theorists behind Cognitivism are Plato, Descartes, and Jean Piaget. Piaget built upon Plato and Descartes' work on knowledge and behavior, to develop his stages of development (WGU, 2020).Cognitivism states that the brain learns in stages. There is a process of adaption which invloves the assimilation of new knowledge, the accommodation of the knowledge into the schema, and lastly the equilibration; replacing knowledge when needed (Passey, 2018).

Because new learning is brought into what is already known and adapted into the schema, memory serves a vitital role in this theory. Learners are influanced by both internal and external motivators. Both can have positive impacts on supporting students' thinking and development.

Cognitivism

Plato

Descartes

Piaget

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References

Clark, K. R. (2018). Learning theories: behaviorism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 172–175. https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2 &sid=9bd7d54e-7173-4b6b-a721-348db03524a2%40redis Graduate Student Instructor, (2016). Teaching guide for gis learning theory and research. Berkley Graduate Division.https://gsi.berkeley.edu/media/Learning.pdfPassey, D., Dagienė, V., Atieno, L., & Baumann, W. (2018). Computational practices, educational theories, and learning development. Problemos. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.15388/Problemos.2018.0.12346 WGU, (2020). Five educational learning theories. Washington Governors University Education. https://www.wgu.edu/blog/five-educational-learning-theories2005.html

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