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Archaic Period & Old Kingdom

The New Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

2660-2160 BCE

1550-1070 BCE

2040-1640 BCE

Nubian products such as gold, ivory, and precious stones were much sought after in Egypt and thus promoted the development of connections between Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Construction of Great Pyramids
  • Complex trade relationships with Nubia/Kush

During the Old Kingdom (2,660- 2,160 BCE), the construction of massive pyramids as symbols of authority and divine status (while also serving as royal tombs) dominated the landscape.Another important development during the Old Kingdom period was the increasing complexity of relations with Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush to the south. Despite military clashes between Egypt and Nubia/Kush, the two states developed close trading and cultural links.

The Great Pyramids

This period was marked by a general stability that was rapidly destroyed by the arrival of outside invaders, known as the Hyksos, in the 1670’s BCE.

The Middle Kingdom

  • Military Superiority
  • Technological Superiority
  • Bronze Weapons
  • Bronze Arrows


the pharaohs sought to extend their power through imperialism (military conquest). A driving force behind Egyptian imperialism was the acquisition of new lands to serve as a buffer zone from potential invaders. Tuthmosis III, for example, led Egyptian armies into Palestine and Syria.

The New Kingdom

  • Prosperous Agricultural Power
  • Strong Army
  • Efficient Bureaucracy

By Andrei Nacu, Jeff Dahl - Own work based on: Egypt 1450 BC.svg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4335117