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Transcript

The End of History in Question: How the Liberal Democracy is Faltering

Though Francis Fukuyama and other political scientists conclude that the world has reached the political equilibrium of a liberal democracy, recent nationalist and right-wing trends indicate otherwise.

What are human views around the world and how have they changed?

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+ Info

While there are many countries that are not liberal democracies, this infographic will highlight the most recent countries to indicate a change from a liberal democracy to another political system. To view more information, select a red arrow.

The Americas

Moving Away from a Liberal Democracy

South America

+ Citations

North America

South America ranks third in the liberal democracy index for countries. Their decline in the index has been more significant than North America since 2006 ("Democracy").

North America is the leading continent for liberal democracy ideology. However, their Liberal Democracy index scores have been declining since 2006 ("Democracy").

Europe

Are the original liberal democracies moving away from their ideological creations?

+ Citations

Africa

The percent of African countries considered a 'full democracy' ("Democracy")

1.5%

#1

Africa contains the least liberal and democratic country in the world: Eritrea ("Most Conservative")

Citations

“Democracy Index 2022.” The Economist Intelligence Unit, 28 Sept. 2023, www.eiu.com/n/campaigns/democracy-index-2022/. Kalapo, Moussa. Few have confidence in Goita’s motivations or his ultimate goals. “Most Conservative Countries 2023.” Wisevoter, 20 Mar. 2023, wisevoter.com/country-rankings/most-conservative-countries/#most-conservative-country.

Asia

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Over the past 20 years, Asia has not significantly changed its average liberal democracy score, with the countries averaging to be a hybrid regime ("Democracy").

+ Citations

Asia is the fastest-growing continent by economy (Seong et al.). Given Asia's hybrid governmental regime, their growth prompts the question as to whether a liberal democracy is truly the most prosperous.

Australasia

Citations:

Retiring radio host Neil Mitchell (left) and Anthony Albanese (right) have gone toe to toe after Mitchell said the PM was falling short of his pledge to raise the standard of political discourse. 1 Dec. 2023. Hutchins, Gareth. “Australians No Longer Trust Their Democracy, Survey Finds.” The Guardian, 5 Dec. 2018, www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/dec/05/australians-no-longer-trust-their-democracy-survey-finds.

Although the Netherlands scores highly on liberal democracy metrics, their new leader Geert WI is far-right and anti-immigrant.

The Netherlands

2.23

5.42

Venezuela

Venezuela's liberal democracy index from 2006-2022 ("Democracy")

(Nicolás Maduro)

Guatamala

After peaking in measurements of being a liberal democracy, Guatemala is now considered a 'hybrid regime' between Authoritarian and democracy ("Democracy").

28%

S

Of Guatemalans support their democracy ("Level").

(Formal Portrait)

Though Singapore is a democracy by name, it is a dictatorship in practice. However, they offer a hybrid whereby their economy still relies on free trade, presenting one of the largest threats to a true liberal democracy (Meadows).

Singapore

(May)

3rd

Highest GDP-PPP Per Capita in the world ("Top 10").

Argentina has recently voted in President Javier Milei, a far-right politician from the 'freedom advances' party. Subsequently, Argentina has been relabelled from a 'full liberal democracy' to a 'flawed liberal democracy' indicating their move away from Fukuyama's beliefs ("Democracy").

Argentina

(Javier Milei)

"Wannabe Fascist"

0.24

Out of

1

Honduras

In 2006, Honduras was considered by political scientists to be a slightly flawed liberal democracy ("Democracy"). Today, however, Honduras is a hybrid regime between authoritarian and liberal democracy, even seeking relations with China ("Honduras")

Honduras Liberal Democracy index ("Most Conservative")

(Honduran President)

Ballard, Jamie. “Polls from the Past: Democracy, Patriotism, and Trust in Other Americans.” YouGov, 30 June 2023, today.yougov.com/politics/articles/45867-polls-past-democracy-patriotism-trust-americans?redirect_from=%2Ftopics%2Fpolitics%2Farticles-reports%2F2023%2F06%2F30%2Fpolls-past-democracy-patriotism-trust-americans. Finchelstein, Federico. “Javier Milei Is the World’s Latest Wannabe Fascist.” Foreign Policy, 9 Dec. 2023, foreignpolicy.com/2023/12/09/javier-milei-is-the-worlds-latest-wannabe-fascist/. Formal Portrait of Dr. Alejandro Giamatteti. 22 Nov. 2021. Honduran President Xiomara Castro at the Presidential House in Tegucigalpa in November. 15 Mar. 2023. Horse, Shay. Donald Trump’s supporters violently breached the Capitol on January 6 to prevent the certification of President Joe Biden’s victory. 6 Jan. 2021. Washington D.C. “Level of Support for Democracy in Guatemala 2020.” Statista, 21 July 2023, www.statista.com/statistics/990616/guatemala-democracy-support-rates/. Javier Milei carried a chainsaw at many of his rallies as a symbol of his planned cuts. Buenos Aires. Levine, Sam. “US Sinks to New Low in Rankings of World’s Democracies.” The Guardian, 24 Mar. 2021, www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/mar/24/us-world-democracy-rankings-freedom-house-new-low. “Most Conservative Countries 2023.” Wisevoter, 20 Mar. 2023, wisevoter.com/country-rankings/most-conservative-countries/#most-conservative-country. Nicolás Maduro also said the Venezuelan authorities had foiled a plot to cause an explosion at another oil refinery. 12 Sept. 2020.

71%

All measures of liberal democracy in the United States peaked under President Barrack Obama (Levine). Those measures now indicate that the United States is a 'flawed liberal democracy'.

United States

(Horse)

38%

% of Americans unsatisfied with their democracy, 1997 vs 2023 (Ballard)

“Democracy Index 2022.” The Economist Intelligence Unit, 28 Sept. 2023, www.eiu.com/n/campaigns/democracy-index-2022/. May, Wong. Newly appointed Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong takes the oath of office Thursday night in Singpapore. 12 Aug. 2004. Singapore. Meadows, Donella. “Singapore Leads the Good Life Under a Benevolent Dictator.” The Academy for Systems Change, 2 Nov. 2011, donellameadows.org/archives/singapore-leads-the-good-life-under-a-benevolent-dictator/#:~:text=It’s%20a%20dictatorship%20with%20free,%2C%20Confucianist%2C%20bureaucratic%20state%E2%80%9D. Seong, Jeongmin, et al. “Asia on the Cusp of a New Era.” McKinsey & Company, 22 Sept. 2023, www.mckinsey.com/mgi/our-research/asia-on-the-cusp-of-a-new-era. “Top 10 Richest Countries in the World by GDP per Capita in 2023.” Forbes India, 7 Dec. 2023, www.forbesindia.com/article/explainers/top-10-richest-countries-in-the-world/87305/1.

Though the United Kingdom is still considered a liberal democracy, the Conservative Party has resurfaced nationalist sentiments through Brexit and the Rwanda scheme.

United Kingdom

Brexit

Australia

86%

Of Australians were satisfied with their democracy in 2007 (Hutchens).

VS.

41%

In 2018.If this trend continues, Australia's democracy may be rendered illegitamate

("Retiring radio host")

Though France is still run as a liberal democracy, recent evidence suggests that nationalist far-right movements are the most popular (Basso).

France

Considered a flawed democracy in 2010, Mali is now under authoritarian, nationalist rule, following the same path as many other African countries ("Democracy").

Mali

(Kalapo)

Basso, Davide. “EU Elections: Le Pen’s Party Takes Poll Lead.” Euractiv, 18 Oct. 2023, www.euractiv.com/section/elections/news/eu-elections-le-pens-party-takes-poll-lead/. Dawson, Bethany. “UK’s Botched Rwanda Deportation Plan Comes with £290m Price Tag.” POLITICO, 8 Dec. 2023, www.politico.eu/article/uk-rishi-sunak-cost-rwanda-asylum-deportation-plan/.