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by Luna Chiang

In this presentation, we will explore the fascinating world of conditionals. From the fundamental structures to common mistakes, get ready to become a conditional expert!

Zero, First, and Second Conditional



Introduction to Conditionals

  • If I had a million dollars, I would buy a beach house.(这个例句表达的是虚拟、假设的情况,因为目前我并没有一百万美元。条件部分使用了过去时,表示当前情况的虚拟假设,而结果部分使用了虚拟语气 "would",表示与这一虚拟条件相关的可能结果。)

Second Conditional(二条件句): 这种条件句用于表达虚拟、假设或不太可能发生的情况,它包括一个过去的条件和一个与之相关的虚拟结果。

  • If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.(条件部分使用现在时,结果部分使用将来时。)

First Conditional(一条件句): 用于表达可能在未来发生的情况,它包括一个条件和一个相应的结果,通常使用现在时和将来时。

  • If you mix red and blue, you get purple.

Zero Conditional(零条件句): 这种条件句表达的是普遍真理和自然规律,描述的是一种普遍性的情况,无论何时何地都成立。

Zero, First, 和 Second Conditional的基本概念

  1. Provided it rains, the flowers grow beautifully.
  1. If the sun sets, it gets dark.
  1. If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
  • 例句:
  • If + 现在时,现在时



Zero Conditional

  1. Provided you study hard, you will pass the exam.
  1. She will be happy if you help her with the project.
  1. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.
  • 例句:
  • 如果主句在前,也可以用 "unless" 表示相反的条件
  • If + 现在时,将来时



First Conditional

  1. Provided it were sunny, we could have a picnic.
  1. She would be surprised if you called her.
  1. If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.
  • 例句:
  • If + 过去时,虚拟语气(would/could + 动词原形)



Second Conditional

  • 使用 "provided" 在条件句中可以强调条件成立的确定性,传达一种条件满足时结果几乎是确定发生的意味。这与 "if" 的用法相似,但 "provided" 带有一种更强的前提条件的语气。



Provided it doesn't rain, we will have a picnic in the park.

在条件句中,"provided" 通常被用作引导条件的关联词,与 "if" 具有类似的作用。使用 "provided" 时,强调条件成立时可能发生的结果。例句:


Use "will" for real or likely events and "would" for hypothetical or unreal situations in the first and second conditionals.

Confusing "will" and "would"

Remember to include a comma between the "if" and "result" clauses in the first and second conditionals.

Omitting the comma

Ensure consistency in tense usage between the "if" and "result" clauses.

Mixing verb tenses

Common Mistakes and Challenges

Game - Picture Stories

  • Second Conditional: Suppose we have surfboards; we can try surfing.
  • Provided there is an ice cream truck, we will buy ice cream.
  • If the weather is hot, we will go swimming.

At the Beach

  • Provided we have a tent, we can stay warm at night.
  • Unless we bring enough food, we'll have to forage for wild food.
  • If the night sky is clear, we will see beautiful stars.

In a Campsite at the Foot of a Mountain

  • Second Conditional: Suppose the fireworks show begins; we will have a memorable night.
  • Provided we get close to the stage, we'll better appreciate the music.
  • If the music is good, we will keep dancing.

At a Music Festival in the City

  • Second Conditional: If we make friends at the gym, exercising will become more enjoyable.
  • Provided we stick to weekly workouts, we will see positive changes in our bodies.
  • If we find a fitness trainer, we'll achieve our exercise goals more effectively.

In the Gym