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The Fourth Way of Change



Andy HargreavesDennis Shirley

The Fourth Way of Change


LEAD 6040

Kimberly Jones

Successive waves of social and educational reform have been fundamentally flawed. It's time for something bolder and better" (Hargreaves & Shirley, 2009).

Standardization and Accountability in Education

The United States' current approach to education - with a huge focus on achievement and standardized test scores- is falling short. Time spent in classrooms on tested subjects like English and Math had increased dramatically, while time in subjects like Socil Studies, Science, Language, Art, and Music has seen a dramatic decrease. These changes have not increased the efficacy of the educational system or the lives of the students and teachers in the system.

Poltical solutions to the problem of US Education have evolved over time, but the problem is yet to be solved...

  • Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher cut a lot of social services, resulting in reduced costs
  • Increased encouragement of entrepreneurial spirit and individual responsibility as a reult of high-stakes standardization
  • Wider gap between rich and poor, decreased professional motivation

The Second Way of Change

  • Finland as a model - decentralized education system with focus on highly qualififed teachers
  • Student-focused curriculum design and small class sizes
  • Shared resources and internal assessments
  • Change initiated from community instead of government - increased sense of trust and safety

The Fourth Way of Change

  • Clinton and Blair attempted combining the first two ways - increased resources for public services, encouraged growth of professional communities and diversity in providers
  • No Child Left Behind introduced Adequate Yearly Progress goals
  • ata-driven education and high stakes testing

The Third Way of Change

  • Fostered innovation in Education
  • Allowed for a lot of freedom, but also variablity in quality
  • Offered a lot of support for the poor, but not sustainable in the long run - Welfare State

The First Way of Change

Changes in Education

A New Opportunity

4 Catalysts

3 Principles

5 Pillars




Purpose and Partnership

Moving Toward a Fourth Way



Hargreaves & Shirley, 2009

We need to let leaders lead again. We need to engage the public...we need to put educators themselves at the leading edge of reform.'

New Vision


Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The fourth way of change. In Corwin Press eBooks (pp. 29–40). https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218991.n4

--Inspiring and Inclusive Vision-Deepened Public Engagement-Achievement through Increased Investment-Corporate Educational ResponsibilityStudents as Partners in Change

5 Pillars of Purpose

-High-Quality Teachers-Powerful Professionalism-Lively Learning Communities

3 Principles of Professionalism

4 Catalysts of Coherence

-Sustainable Leadership-Networks of Mutual Learning-Resposibility Before Accountability-Building from the bottom, Steering from the top

Education as a Public Good

-Greater Innovation and Creativity-Committment and Perserverance from Students-Strengthened Global Partnerships and Security-Promotion of Inclusivity-High standards without standardization-Persistence and perserverance