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START

ELEMENTARY PARTICLES

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

SECTION 01

Quantum model

Shows electrons don’t move around the nucleus in orbits, but in clouds where their position is uncertain.Still widely accepted as the most accuratemodel of the atom.

Planetary model

Proposed stable electron orbits; explained the emission spectra of some elements.Moving electrons should emit energy and collapse into the nucleus; model did not work well for heavier atoms.

Nuclear model

Realised that positive charge was localised in the nucleus of an atom.Did not explain why electrons remain inorbit around the nucleus.

Recognised electrons as componentsof atoms.No nucleus, and didn’t explain laterexperimental observations.

Recognised that atoms of a particular element differ from other elements.Atoms aren’t indivisible — they’re composed from subatomic particles.

Plum pudding model

Solid sphere model

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

John Dalton1809

Ernest Rutherford1911

J.J. Thomsom1904

Niels Bohr1913

Erwin Schrödinger1926

QUARK

+ info

STANDARD MODEL

  • Gravitational Force: Mutual attraction between masses due to the curvature of space-time.
  • Electromagnetic Force: Interaction between electric charges that manifests in attractions and repulsions.
  • Strong Nuclear Force: Force that holds nucleons (protons and neutrons) together in the atomic nucleus.
  • Weak Nuclear Force: Responsible for certain nuclear decay processes and changes in quarks and leptons (Radioactivity).

STRONGE FORCEELECTROMAGNETIC FORCEWEAK FORCE

LEPTONS

QUARKS

BOSONS

FERMIONS

PARTICLES

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