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Constructivism has roots with many theorists, including Piaget, Bruner, and Goodman. While constructivism can be classified as cognitivism, it is based in more of a philisophical realm rather that phsycological. It states that learning is unique to the individual based on creating their own meaningful experiences. It discussed that background knowledge is unique, and the learning that occurs is based on content that the individual finds meaningful. Because of this, this theory suggests that memory is constantly under construction as we are constantly encountering new and meaningful experiences that will shape our learning (Medsker, Ertmer & Newby, 2013).The best type of learning based on constructivism is project based learning. Learners are able to use their own backgrown knowledge and meaningful memories to create their own meaning of the content (Loveless, 2023). This is represented by the Legos. We know that when children play with legos their final products will differ based on their own thoughs and ideas. No two lego houses will be the same if the child is able to construct to their desire.


Cognitivism is majorly contributed to Wolfgang Kohler and Jean Piaget. Cognitivism is stated as believing that learning happens when a student is able to connect information they already in order to solve problems and find solutions (Loveless, 2023).As opposed to behaviorism, memory plays an important role in cognitivism. Learning happens when information is stored in the memory in a mannor that is meaningful and organized. At this point transfer, or connecting prior knowledge to a new situtatuon, can occur. This is shown through problem-solving, higher order thinking, and concept formation (Medsker, Ertmet, & Newby, 2013).This is shown on this image as a complex math problem. In order to solve complex problems like this, one needs to access their background knowledge on mathmatics and apply it in new ways.


While many have contributed to the Behaviorist learning theory, such as Ivan Pavlov, Edward Lee Thorndike, and B.F. Skinner, the leading theorist is John. B. Watson. Behaviorism theory suggests that behavior is learned, and such, knowledge is external. Learning happens through repetition, verbal reinforcement, and incentives such as this marble jar (Loveless, 2023). Behaviorism does not discuss the role of memory much, as the theory states that learning stems mostly from repetition, review, and practice, and occurs when an appropriate responce follows a stimulus. This theory suggests that the best types of learning recalling facts, defining concepts, and automaticity. This would suggest that the use of flashcards and rote memorization would be used (Medsker, Ertmer, & Newby, 2013).


A relatively new theory - the theory of connectivism by George Siemens and Stephen Downes - is represented in this classroom as gameboards. Connectivisim theory states that learning happens through connections. It is a shift from a teacher-centered classroom to a learner centered classroom.Connectivism speaks in terms of nodes and links. This is to say that when we make connections (links) between different types of information (nodes) such as books, peers, or games that our memory is more mearningful. This can lend itself to saying that memory would work the same way. We can infer that when our brain is subjected to a stimuli - here refered to as a node - that allows a connection, or link, to be made to another node, it strengthens the memory.Two ways to bring connectivism into the classroom would be through gamification - making learning a competitive experience - and social media - allowing students to connect with each other through interactive means, much like discussion boards (WGU, 2021).


Sociocultural learning theory was first brought onto the scene in the late 20th century by Lev Vygotsky. He believed that children's learning was based mostly on their culture and upbringing. He stated that a child's everyday language, play, and interactions would shape their development more than other developmental theories of the time. That a child would develop the way their home allows them too. This is represented on this chart as the cultural handprints along the top of this classroom to show that we are all unique and have something special we can bring to the classroom. While the role of memory is not majorly outlined, it is emphisized that learning does not happen once. This theory suggests that a child learns things twice - once socially and once internally - before it becomes learned. Which is to suggest that something that is learned - a memory - must be something that occures multiple times to make to long term memory. This theory strongly suggests make believe play to be highly beneficial in teaching. Students are able to 'experience' the cultures that their peers bring through play (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Adult learning

In his adult learning theory, Malcolm Shepherd Knowles believed that there are 5 major characteristics that are different between adult and children learners.-- Through maturing, a person moves from being a dependent personality to being independent.-- Through maturing, a person forms many more experiences that become resources for learning.-- Through maturing, readiness to learn increases and in itself matures to take on a context of a person's social roles.-- Through maturing, time perspective changes from postponed application to immedicate application - also changing from learning 'subjects' to learning to problem solve.-- Through maturing, our motivation to learn changed from external (get good grades or you'll be grounded) to internal (I want to better myself) (Pappas, 2013).Because this type of maturity typically happens during the college years, I opted to represent the Adult Learning Theory as a graduation cap and college pennant.Athough not explicitly stated, the role of this theory in memory and learning would be closely linked. We know that when something has more meaning and more impact than we are more likely to learn it better. When we mature and become concerned with our own learning - much as in a college course - learning takes on a whole new form. Project-based learning (PBL) and self-directed learning (SDL) are two teaching strategies that work well with the adult learning theory. PBL is essentially learning by doing - that is to say, showing knowledge by completing a project or solving a problem. SDL is giving the learner control to take the intiative for their learning. This shows itself in an online course where students are given the assignements and readings and are tasked with taking the intiative to complete the assignments on their own (New England Institute of Technology, 2021).