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Adult learning theory

Learning theories part 2


Theorists: Vygotsky is the main psychologist for this learning theory. He proposed that learning is based on interactions with others. Characteristics: Culture and language are two large themes of the learning theory. These two characteristics are the main factors of social interaction between one another. The main characterisitc is zone of proximal development. This is a gap that each student has educationally and developmentally. Role of Memory: Students memorize information by discussing past experiences and memories. Information becoming memorized is based on being guided by educators. How learning occurs: Learning occurs when students interact with those who are more skilled socially than themselves. Cognitive function of students are based on this. Types of learning: Relationships are formed between teachers and students. This allows further social interaction to take place and form more memories.


Theorists: George Siemens and Stephen Downes are the founders of this learning theory. They believed that the human brain and knowledge connects with technology and non-human objects to learn and create memories. Characteristics: Content is shared between one another (teachers and students) in a collaboritive manner. Various ways of learning are connected to help students learn and memorize information.Role of Memory: Students learn in this theory by making connections between the information and ideas/content that is already stored in long term memory within the brain.How learning occurs: Learning occurs when students make connections to content. Linking information and bringing previous information into the new current information.Types of learning: Collaboration between students and teachers are a big way to incorporate it into the classroom.

adult learning theory

Theorists: Malcolm Knowles created this theory when he realized learning takes place differently in children versus adults. Characteristics: Adults have a different view of learning than children do. For example, adults are more confident in their learning, they have more learning experiences to learn from, they are more mature, and overall are more ready to learn than children. Role of Memory: Adults use all types of learning theories based on what works best for them. At this age, adults know how they learn best and what they need to do in order to remember information.How learning occurs: Learning occurs by taking notes, reading text about the content, listening to others about the information, and having in-depth conversations.Types of learning: In the classroom, adults should be discussing with one another and asking questions about material that is not understood. Adults take their education more in their own hands than in the educators hands.


Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2016). Curriculum: foundations, principles, and issues. (7th ed.). Pearson Education. Pappas, C. (2014). Instructional design models and theories: the sociocultural learning theory. eLearning Industry. https://elearningindustry.com/sociocultural-learning-theory Western Governors University (2021). Connectivism learning theory. https://www.wgu.edu/blog/connectivism-learning-theory2105.html#:~:text=Connectivism%20is%20a%20relatively%20new,make%20choices%20about%20our%20learning.