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Transcript

Learning Theories: Part 2

Mitchell BellGrand Canyon UniversityEDU-522November 22, 2023

Sociocultural

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Connectivism

Adult Learning Theory

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References

Sociocultural Learning Theory

RETURN HOME

Major Theorists

Characteristics

Role of Memory/ How learning occurs

TYPES OF LEARNING

Image of Lev Vygotsky-Best known for his work on psychological development in children.

Connectivism

RETURN HOME

Major Theorists

Characteristics

Role of Memory/ How learning occurs

TYPES OF LEARNING

Photo of George Siemens- Introduced Connectivism Learning Theory with Stephen Downes. First blog was posted in 2004 by Siemens.

Adult Learning Theory

RETURN HOME

Major Theorists

Characteristics

Role of Memory/ How learning occurs

TYPES OF LEARNING

Photo of Malcolm Knowles-Founder of Adult Learning Theory

RETURN HOME

References

Loveless, B. (2023). 15 learning theories in education (a complete summary). Education Corner. https://www.educationcorner.com/learning-theories-in-education/Merriam, S. B. (2018). Adult learning theory. Contemporary theories of learning: Learning theorists... in their own words, 83-96.Pappas, C. (2023). Everything You Need To Know About The Connectivism Learning Theory. https://elearningindustry.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-connectivism-learning-theoryScott, S., & Palincsar, A. (2013). Sociocultural theory.Education.com. https://www.dr-hatfield.com/theorists/resources/sociocultural_theory.pdfStoltz, R. (2021, December 28). Your complete guide to adult learning theory. NEIT. https://www.neit.edu/blog/what-is-adult-learning-theory

Characteristics of Learning

Sociocultural theory allows the learner to interpret, think, and develop based on their participation in culturally organized activites. Childrens cognitive development is guided through participation which supports understanding of a skill in the culture. Learners are guided based on a child's caregiver, which can be interpretted as a parent, teacher, mentor, or online source (Scott & Palincsar, 2013).

Learning occurs in socioculural theory by identifying the abilities that are in the process of development and attempt to predict what the learner will do in the future (Scott & Palincsar, 2013). Using a learners ZPD, potential develpment is determined through probelm solving under adult guidance or collaboration with peers (Scott & Palincsar, 2013).

Vygotsky explains that memory is based on the culture you are associated with. In Western culture, we use note taking, mind-maps, or mnemonics to help us learn. In other cultures, they may use a different approach such as storytelling (Loveless, 2023). Sociocultural uses scaffolding so the learner can work independently and collaboratively (Lovelss, 2023).

How Learning Occurs

Role of Memory

Types of Learning

Collaborative- The goal of collaborative learning is to support students as they engage in activities and talk with partners (Scott & Palinsar, 2013). Teachers mediate as the students work together to share experiences.Language- Language is the main way students communicate with each other. As they mature, their private speech becomes more of a priority as they are able to process social speech which is when they are socializing and communicating with others (Lovelees, 2023).

LEV VYGOTSKY

  • Individual development is correlated with social sources (Scott & Palincsar, 2013).
  • Introduced Zone of Proximal Development-Learning should be matched with the child's level of development (Scott & Palincsar, 2013).
  • Cognitive development occurs through guided participation in social activity (Scott & Palincsar, 2013).

George Siemens

  • Introduced Connectivism in 2004 and encourages education through online communities such as blogs (Pappas, 2023).
  • Focuses on collaborative learning with group interactions (Pappas, 2023).

Characteristics of Connectivism

  • General knowledge should be gathered through a combination of sources including blogs, theories, and other online databases (Pappas, 2023)
  • Learning is a social process-Students learn more effectiviely when they collaborate to share ideas and experiences (Pappas, 2023).
  • Culture and society influence learning
  • Decisions change over time

Connectivism is a responsibility of the learner to engage and connect with different online communities. Through collaboration, learners will constantly be gathering new information and processing it as we develop (Pappas, 2023).

Role of Memory

Learning occurs through an online learning environment where people can share information with different experiences and values. Learning is student centered and the teacher plays the role of a facilitator (Pappas, 2023).

How Learning Occurs

  • Collaboration- Learners collaborate through online learning
  • Motivation- Learners have control over their learning environment. A motivated learner will enjoy what they are doing and be more engaged with their work.
  • Diversity-Learning is diverse. An online community allows learners to work with groups from different backgrounds to share experiences and beliefs with each other.

Types of Learning

Characteristics of Adult Learning Theory

  • Adult learning is done through experience in real life sitations and consists of 5 main assumptions
  • Adults become more independent in their learning
  • The 5 assumptions are: Self-concept, adult learner experiences, readiness to learn, orientation of learning, and motivation to learn

Malcolm Knowles

  • Introduced Adult Learning Theory in 1968 and revolved around self-concept, the adult learning experience, readiness to learn, and the orientation to learning (Stoltz, 2021)

Memory becomes more difficult with age and therefore prior experiences and knowledge beomes more important (Stoltz, 2021). Learning is done through personal growth and not so much through behavior change (Merriam, 2018)

Role of Memory

Learning occurs through self-directed guidance and motivation to learn (Stoltz, 2021). The 5 assumtions of learning demonstrate that learning is a self-concept and learning is done through daily activities and experiences.

How Learning Occurs

  • Andragogy: Adults learn based on their motivation and are guided from dependent to be a more self-directed human (Merriam, 2018).
  • Self-Directed Learning (SDL)- Learning is done through means of their own will through everyday life (Merriam, 2018). The transformation from dependent to independent and learning on your own.
  • Transformative Learning- Transformative learning is dependent on adult life experiences. Consists of making sense of your experiences and changing belief, attitude, or perspectives (Merriam, 2018).

Types of Learning