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Transcript

Part I

Learning Theories

Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Constructivism

By, Cortney Bibeault

Clark, K. R. (2018a). Learning theories: Cognitivism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 176–179. Clark, K. R. (2018b). Learning Theories: Constructivism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 180–182. Clark, K. R. (2018c). Learning Theories: Behaviorism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 172–175. Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71. Gould, M. (2023). Learning Process. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2016). Curriculum: foundations, principles, and issues. (7th ed). Pearson.

References

Information about

BEHAVIORISM

Theorists

The Role of Memory

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Characteristics

Information about

COGNITIVISM

Theorists

The Role of Memory

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Characteristics

Information about

CONSTRUCTIVISM

Theorists

The Role of Memory

How Learning Occurs

Types of Learning

Characteristics

In Constructivism, the focus shifts from types of learning and more towards there being multiple ways of presenting the information, as well as the student being more in control of their learning with the teacher facilitating their introduction to the material (Gould, 2019).

This learning theory is very similar to Cognitivism as learning occurs between the learner's past experiences and the new knowledge, but is different as the learner is treated as the key player who must transform the knowledge themselves (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016). This process is most effective when the learner is aware what is happening and restructures or employs the new information.

Activities in the classroom related to the behaviorism theory:

  • Lecturing
  • Recalling facts
  • Defining & illustrating concepts
  • Applying explanations
  • Participating in rote learning through memorization based on repetition
  • Establishing classroom management policies using rewards and punishments

Cognitivism replaced behaviorism as the more applicable learning theory in the late 1950s to early 1960s. Many cognitive psycholigists believe cognitive learning takes place in stages, not all at once (Clark, 2018a) and is not just a response to an environmental stimulus. It is an attempt to understand how people learn information and then process and store that information (Clark, 2018a).

Behaviorism is sometimes called the stimulus-response theory (Clark, 2018c).

Memory is not usually addressed by behaviorists. Habits are discussed, however this is based on the continuance or discontinuance of a stimulus (Ertmer & Newby, 2013).

There are many different activites that can be done to build strength and cognitive development in the following skills: memory recall activities, comprehension question practice, outlining, use of graphic organizers, and doing problem-solving activities (Ertmer & Newby, 2013).

Behaviorism is a psychological theory which states that learning takes place through conditioning. Learning is defined by a change in behavior (Gould, 2023). Behaviorists believe that when a stimulus from the environment is presented to a subject, that subject will react to that stimulus with some type of response, whether negative or positive (Clark, 2018c). These responses are then reinforced with either punishment or rewards, which leads to automatic responses or what is known as conditioning (Clark, 2018c). Behaviorism focuses on observable and measurable behaviors (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Behaviorism is sometimes called the stimulus-response theory (Clark, 2018c).

In this theory, as new information is taught, the brain uses previous knowledge and/or experiences to make sense of the new knowledge being processed. This helps the learner remember more. This is why learning through experience makes a huge difference (Clark, 2018b).

Cognitivism is the study of the mind and how it takes in and processes new information (Clark, 2018a). Different theorists and psychologists bring different stages of development to the table of cognitivism. Jean Piaget brings his four stages of development, Gardner brings the theory of multiple intelligences describing how students take in and process information, Bloom offers different pathways to teach students based on higher-order thinking, and Vygotsky offers the Zone of proximal development through gradual release and scaffolding to meet student needs (Ornstein & Hunknins, 2016). Theorists believe learning has everything to do with the learn themselves and not just a response to stimuli (Clark, 2018a).

Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) was an American Educator and Psychologist. He is considered to be the founder of behavioral psychology (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

He also developed the Three Laws of Learning:

  • The Law of Readiness
  • The Law of Exercise
  • The Law of Effect

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian Psychologist. Pavlov discovered Classical Conditioning through experiments that showed how dogs salivate based on a bell being rung (Clark, 2018c).

B. Frederick Skinner (1904-1990) was an American Psychologist and Behaviorist who developed the theory of Operant Conditioning. Skinner believed behavior couldn't be connected to a certain stimuli (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

John B. Watson (1878-1958) is considered to be the Father of Behaviorism. Watson believed animals should be used for psychological research studies and also believe that learning happened through conditioning (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Cognitive psychologists assume there are two types of memory: short term and long term. Short term memory works through immediate memory and working memory. Long term memory works through semantic memory and procedural memory (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

In the Constructivist theory, students learn through experiences and social interractions (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016). Students use prior knowledge to make sense of the new information they're taking in (Clark, 2018b). In this theory, students should be actively, not passively (Clark, 2018b).

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) was an Italian physician, cognitive developmentalist and educator. She encouraged that children learn through their own interests, rather than an environment planned out by the classroom teacher (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist who developed the theory of cognitive development (Clark, 2018a). He identified four stages of cognitive development:

  • Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
  • Preoperational (2-7 years)
  • Concrete Operational (7-11 years)
  • Formal Operations (Ages > 11 years)

Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) was an American educational psychologist who is responsible for creating the Bloom's Taxonomy Model many educators use to this day. Bloom believed there is a heirarchial model of cognitive learning for students. He believed what children are exposed to in the home before they enter school is crucial to their cognitive development (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) was a Russian educator and psychologist who believed children cognitively develope through socialization, play, and interactions with others. He is also credited with developing the theory of Zone of Proximal Development (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Howard Gardner (1943-) is an American developmental psychologist who is best known for his theory of Multiple Intelligences (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Robert Gagné (1916-2002) is an American educational psychologist who is well known for his nine conditions of learning that educators should know and use to help students take in and process new information (Clark, 2018a).

Behaviorism is sometimes called the stimulus-response theory (Clark, 2018c).

Behaviorism is built on the idea that all behaviors are the result of stimuli in a subject's environment (Clark, 2018c). Behaviorism started with a focus on an individual's response to a situation and evolved into reinforcing those responses with positive or negative stimuli to condition the behavior (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) was a Russian educator and psychologist who believed children cognitively develope through socialization, play, and interactions with others. He is also credited with developing the theory of Zone of Proximal Development (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2016).

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist who developed the theory of cognitive development (Clark, 2018a). He identified four stages of cognitive development:

  • Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
  • Preoperational (2-7 years)
  • Concrete Operational (7-11 years)
  • Formal Operations (Ages > 11 years)