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Introduction to Measurements, Metrology, and Instrumentation

Scientific Instruments for Space

Lord Kelvin (William Thompson), May 3, 1883

Audio

“I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the state of Science, whatever the matter may be.”

Product Development

Experimental Observations

Modeling

Technological Development

Professional Society

Standards

Accreditation

Units

Regulatory Agency

SI Conversion

Qualification by Measurement

Universal Constants

ISO

Measurement

Audio

Instrumentation

Metrology

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The Ecosystem that advances SCIENCE and knowledge

  • Selection of proper measuring instrument
  • Proper measuring standards
  • Standardization
  • Maintain accuracy and precision during inspection
  • Ensuring component of an instrument is reliable over time of use

OBJECTIVES

INDUSTRIAL

REGULATORY

LEGAL

SCIENTIFIC

THEORETICAL

Audio

TYPES

  • To establish the units of measurement
  • To replicate these units as standards
  • To guarantee the measurement uniformity
  • To develop measurement methods
  • To investigate the accuracy of methods-related errors

FUNCTION

Metrology

AUTOMATION

PORTABILITY

ENVIRONMENT

CALIBRATION

PRECISION

ERROR

ACCURACY

SENSITIVITY

SCALE

RANGE

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Devices and tools for indicating, measuring, and recording physical quantities
  • Tends to be loosely defined because the required tasks are very domain dependent
  • To maintain retroactive control of a process

FUNCTION

Audio

Instrumentation

DETERMINING UNCERTAINTY AND ERROR

PROPER APPROACH

MEASUREMENT INTERACTIONS

PROCEDURES AND OPERATORS

MEASUREMENT DEVICE

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PROCESS

  • The basis of scientific research
  • Enables understanding of the physical phenomena (measurand)
  • Characterize scientific understanding with numbers and values

FUNCTION

Measurements

Cell Tower and Smart Phone Technologies

Air and Space-based Imaging (GIS)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)

UK Imperial Weights and Measurement Act

18th Century French Scientists

Gunter's Chain

Mercator Projection

Audio

Ancient Greek Cartographers

Egyptian Royal Cubit

Figuring out distance between location A and location B

Applying the MIM Triangle: Measuring Distance

  • Morris, A., & Langari, R. (2020). Measurement and instrumentation: Theory and application (3rd ed). Elsevier Inc. Academic Press
  • Nadi, M. (2007). Measurement instrumentation. In D. Placko (Ed.), Fundamentals of instrumentation and measurement. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470612026.ch1
  • Mekid, S. (2021). Metrology and instrumentation. Wiley-ASME Press. https://www.wiley.com/en-s/Metrology+and+Instrumentation%3A+Practical+Applications+for+Engineering+and+Manufacturing-p-9781119721734

References

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What is "Metrology"?

  • Derived from the Greek words metro (measurement) and logy (science).
  • The science of measurement and its application
  • The field of knowledge concerned with measurement
  • Serves as the rules for guaranteeing measurement; plays a role in international agreements joining national systems of measurement and making conversion between systems
  • Metrological activities include calibrations, standard reference materials, standard reference data, test methods, proficiency evaluation materials, tools that facilitate the evaluation of measurement uncertainty, and establishing traceability of measurement results

What is "Measurement"?

  • The process of experimentally obtaining one or more quantity values
  • Measurement is the basis of scientific research.
  • It allows us to understand the phenomena we observe in our environment by experimental deduction and verification
  • It helps us keep orderly records with quantitative values assigned to observationsIt creates a reliable representation of a natural or artificial phenomenon with a group of symbols, usually numbers
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has defined measurement as “a set of operations having the object of determining the value of a quantity”

What is "Instrumentation"?

  • Instrumentation comprises scientific activities and technologies that are related to measurement
  • All existing tools that help us carry out measurement are part of instrumentation
  • The link between physical, chemical, and biological phenomena and their perception by humans
  • Instrument Society of America – “It refers to a collection of instruments or their application for the purpose of measurement, observation, and control”