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Transcript

Cognitivism

Constructivism

Behaviorism

Behaviorism

Major Theorists

Watson, Thorndike, Pavlov, Guthrie, Hull, Skinner

Major Characteristics

Behaviors are learned Behaviors are stimulus specific Behaviors can be taught, changed, and modified

The Role of Memory

Memory plays a huge role in operant conditioning by allowing the individual to remember what behaviors will be rewarded and what behaviors will be punished.

How Learning Occurs

Stimuli in the environment as well as rewards and consiquences mold behavior through operant conditioning

Types of Learning

Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Observation Learning

Gould, 2023Graham, 2019)(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017)

Cognitivism

How Learning Occurs

Role of Memory

Major Theorists

Major Characteristics

Types of Learning

Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne

Learning must be purposeful and focused. Learning must be self-directed. Learning must come from analysis Students use schema to organize and encode

Short term – immediate memory (about 30 seconds)Working memory (flexible chunks of information to be used)Long term - Semantic (why things are the way they are) Procedural (Why humans do what we do)

The brain retains information through experiences, senses and thought. Knowledge is an internal process rather than a product.

Explicit, Implicit, Emotional, Observational

Gould, 2023(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017)

Constructivism

Types of Learning

How Learning Occurs

The Role of Memory

Major Theorists

Major Characteristics

Learners are active in constructing their own knowledge rather than passively taking in information. As learners experience the world, they use experiences to reflect and build their own representations and knowledge.

“Constructivist theory has not dealt explicitly with memory. The basic principles of constructivism suggest that learners are more apt to remember information if their constructions are personally meaningful to them” (Ormrod et al., 2009, p. 221)

Dewey, Piaget, Bruner

As students compile their own knowledge and understanding of the world, they will reflect on themselves and the world to interpret and interact. Learners must use their understanding of the world to mold their cognitive processes.

Reciprocal learning, Inquiry-based learning, Research, Problem-based learning

(Gould, 2023)(Ormrod et al., 2009, p. 221)(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017)