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Behaviorism is the learning theory that beings learn through experiences and stimuli. Examples of such stimuli and experiences include environment, reinforcements, rewards and conditioned behaviors. Learning occurs: Educators provide rewards for desired outcomes and consequences for unwanted learning actions to develop habit forming behaviors.

THEORISTS OF BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY Edward Thorndike: Theory that behavior is a response to stimuli. This is classical conditioning. Thorndike's rules for behaviorism declare that a being can only learn when in a ready state, connections are increased with more practice and over a longer duration, and associations to connections improve with positive influences , while decreasing with negative associations. John B. Watson: A behavioral Scientist that focused on what can be observed and measured. Behavior is conditioned with associated stimulus known as classical conditioning. His theory was based on the experiment of Ivan Pavlov, in which a dog responds to a bell when fed and the pup salivates when later hearing a bell. Like this experiment, behaviors are a response to a repetitive stimulus association. B.F Skinner: Skinner believed in Operant Conditioning. Frequency of Behaviors are increased when a learner receives a positive reinforcement, decreased with negative reinforcements and punishements.Albert Bandura: Behaviors are learned and modeled. Beings learn from what they see and what is being modeled. For example, students that observe hitting as an anger response, will hit when angered.Robert Gagne: Developed an eight step progression of learning through behaviors as a foundation that develop into a cognitive processing learning model. His model includes classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observation and modeling, and cognitive elements that entail abstract thinking (McLeod, 2023).

Behaviorism: is the learning theory that beings learn through experiences and stimuli. Behaviorist assoiciate learning with how one acts, not mental cognition. Associations to behavior for learning, involve the interaction of environment and stimulus. Examples: Stimuli and experiences include environment, reinforcements, rewards and conditioned behaviors Hunkins & Ornstein, 2017).Role of memory: Beings develop learned behaviors that progress to habits.Individuals recall reinforcers and consequences to behave accordingly. Learning occurs: Educators provide rewards for desired outcomes and consequences for unwanted learning actions to develop habit forming behaviors (National University, n.d).

Cognitivism: Theory is built on beings learning is dependent on their cognitive abilities with regards to processing information, stored memories, abstract thinking and brain based learning methods. Examples: Students' learning ability is increased with developmental stages. Brain malleability is a factor of shaping the brain. Exposure to challenging abstract thinking and application improves neuron connections in the brain to improve cognition. Roles of memory: Humans cognitively store information to learn in their short term memory then it is filtered to organized information in the working memory. Memories become long term when schemas and concepts are built and information becomes retrievable. Learning occurs: Teachers engage students in meaningful and challenging activities that require abstract thought. Learning should be altered to fit the developmental stage of the child (Hunkins & Ornstein, 2017).

Constructivism is the theory that students construct their own learning. Knowledge is based on social constructs, cognitive constructivism, and radical constructivism. Socially students learn through others, cognitively knowledge is built on previously learned information and radical constructs are based on one's own experiences. Examples: Students link social ideals with new information. Learners build new concepts off of prior knowledge of related subjects. Roles in memory: Students store information by processing it into schemas and concepts. These connections assist transfer into long-term memory. Learning Occurs: Students collaborate with others for understanding of new information and alternative perspectives. Teachers ask questions to relate new information to previously learned information. Teachers encourage reflection of their past related experiences (McLeod, 2023).

THEORISTS OF CONSTUCTIVISM LEARNING THEORY Maria Montessori: Sensory experiences that spark cognition contribute to a being's learning. Humans go through developmental stages that differ in rates and learning with mental processes happens in stages. Disadvantaged children and children with disabilities can learn at higher rates when provided with mentally stimulating experiences and materials. Jean Piaget: Theorist designed a structure of stages that guide how humans cognitively develop. There are eight stages that begin at birth and continue to eleven years and older. Cognitive processes begin with assimilation to the environment then progress to accommodate with them assimilate as they cognitively progress and lastly reach an equilibration to comprehend what is known and unknown. Lev Vygotsky: Theory that cognitive development is influenced by culture and societal norms. Culture can shape language and ways of thinking. Howard Gardner: Developed the theory that there are multiple types of intelligence. His model acknowledges nine different domains of intelligence ranging from linguistics to music centered (call, 2019).

THEORISTS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM LEARNING THEORY John Dewey: Theorists that centered learning around experiences. Learners must build knowledge around continuity of past experiences to foster future experiences and the factors of past interactions to future methods. Jean Piaget: A leader in cognitive development expressed in his theory that children need to use their assimilations of their environment to construct accommodations of newly learned information. Jerome Bruner: Constructive leader in the idea of learning through discovery. Beings learn through problem solving, simulations, and taking part in learning new things. Lev Vygotsky: Theorists that centers around cultural learning. Beings learn language, behaviors, and communication methods from immediate influences surrounding them. Learners construct knowledge from interactions and influences in social groups like family, community and modeled actions. Ernst Von Glasersfeld: Constructive theorists that expressed that beings learn through their own radical methods. Through self-talk, reflections and interpretation of experiences, individuals construct knowledge which they apply to new knowledge (UBC, 2015).

Resources: Call, M. (2019). Neuroplasticity: How to use your brain’s malleability to improve your well being. University of Utah. https://accelerate.uofuhealth.utah.edu/ Hunkins, F. & Ornstein, A. (2017). Curriculum foundations, principles, and issues. Pearson INC. 7th Edition. National University. (n.d.) Behaviorism in education. What is behavioral learning theory? National University. https://www.nu.edu/blog/behaviorism-in-education/ McLeod, S. (2023). Psychology learning theories. Simply Scholar Ltd. https://www.simplypsychology.org UBC, (2015). Constructivism in education. UTEC 512. September-December 2015. http://constructivism512.weebly.com/meet-the-theorists.html