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By the end of this lesson you will be able to understand and use discourse markers and connectives to organise your ideas in speaking and writing.

discourse markers & connectives

a) Used to indicate a logical result or conclusion. b) Introduces an additional point or idea. c) Introduces an opposing or contrasting idea. d) Signals the inclusion of more information. e) Indicates a contrast or unexpected turn. f) Provides an illustration or specific instance. g) Demonstrates a cause-and-effect relationship. h) Signals a brief recap or conclusion.

1) He forgot his umbrella; nonetheless, he enjoyed the walk in the rain. 2) In summary, the team's efforts resulted in a well-deserved victory. 3) She loves to travel; on the contrary, her brother prefers staying at home.4) We discussed the budget, and in addition, we talked about the project timeline. 5) The road was blocked; therefore, we had to take an alternative route.6) Moreover, the new software comes with several advanced features. 7) The rain continued to pour; consequently, the picnic was postponed. 8) Some popular fruits are rich in vitamins. For example, oranges are high in vitamin C.

Match the connectives in the sentences on the left to their definitions on the right

Warm up

  1. e
  2. h
  3. c
  4. d
  5. a
  6. b
  7. g
  8. f


Connectives are words or phrases that connect ideas in a sentence or between sentences.

Why are they important?

What are connectives?

They are important for creating coherence and cohesion in writing and speaking.

  • Due to the heavy rainfall, the river flooded its banks and caused widespread damage.
  • Because the company invested in new technology, productivity increased by 20%.
  • As a result of the pandemic, many businesses were forced to close and lay off employees.
  • Consequently, the stock market experienced a significant drop in value.
  • As a result
  • Because
  • Consequently
  • Due to
Cause and effect
  • John enjoys playing tennis. Similarly, his sister is passionate about the sport.
  • Peter is a vegetarian, and his friend Sarah is likewise committed to a plant-based diet.
  • The weather in July is hot and sunny. In contrast, December is typically cold and rainy.
  • Jenny loves spending her weekends outdoors. On the other hand, her brother prefers to stay indoors and read.
  • Similarly
  • Likewise
  • In contrast
  • On the other hand
Compare and contrast

a) Likewiseb) In contrastc) On the other handd) Similarlye) As a resultf) Becauseg) Consequentlyh) Due to

Write the correct connective in the gap
  1. Tom and Jerry both enjoy playing chess. ________, they both excel in strategic board games.
  2. __________ to her brother, who is an early riser, Emily prefers to sleep in on weekends.
  3. Maria couldn't attend the party _________ she had a prior commitment.
  4. He studied diligently for the exam, and ___________, he achieved a high score.
  5. Jane enjoys hiking, and her husband, _________, shares her passion for the outdoors.
  6. Sarah loves to cook, _____________, her sister prefers dining out.
  7. The soccer match was canceled __________ heavy rain and unfavorable weather conditions.
  8. The storm caused power outages, _____________, many businesses had to close for the day.
  1. d
  2. b
  3. f
  4. e
  5. a
  6. c
  7. h
  8. g


LikewiseIn contrastOn the other handSimilarly As a resultBecauseConsequentlyDue to

My friend Jack likes action movies. I prefer romantic comedies. We went to the cinema. We couldn't decide on a movie. Jack wanted to watch an action movie. I wanted to watch a romantic comedy. We argued. We didn't watch any movie. We had a disappointing evening.

Revise and improve the paragraph by using connectives to link the sentences.

My friend Jack likes action movies. On the other hand, I prefer romantic comedies. When we went to the cinema, we couldn't decide on a movie because our preferences were different. Jack wanted to watch an action movie, however I wanted to watch a romantic comedy. Consequently, we argued. As a result, we didn't watch any movie that night. Due to our argument, we both left the cinema feeling disappointed.

Example answer

Write your own short story using a prompt below:


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