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Transcript

1820-1865

1820

Missouri Compromise

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PERIOD 5 CAUSATION

1850

Compromise of 1850

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1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe writes Uncle Tom's Cabin

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1854

Ostend Manifesto

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1857

Dred Scott Decision

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1842

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

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1850

Fugitive Slave Act

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1853

Gasden Purchase

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1854

Kansas Nebraska Act

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1859

John Brown's Raid

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1830s-1860s

Underground Railroad

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1846-1848

Mexican-American War

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1836-1845

Texas Revolution

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1854-1856

Bleeding Kansas

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1820-1865

1860

Abraham Lincoln's Election

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PERIOD 5 CAUSATION

1861

Fort Sumter

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1862

Homestead Acts

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1865

Thirteenth Amendment Passed

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1861

Formation of Confederate States of America

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1861-1862

Confiscation Acts

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Emancipation Proclamation

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1863

1857-1861

Buchanan's Presidency

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1861-1865

American Civil War

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John Brown's Raid

1859

- Sir John Brown tries to initiate a slave revolt in South- Largely unsuccessful, became the "prelude" to the Civil War- Many of the key players involved in putting down (and being in) the raid later fought in the Civil War

Homestead Acts

1862

- Land distribution act- Redistributed 160 acres of land to all who were willing to farm it- Increase in Western settlers (and further Native American forced relocation)- ONLY FOR PEOPLE WHO HADN'T FOUGHT AGAINST USA BEFORE (which includes Confederate soldiers)

Missouri Compromise

1820

- Admits Maine as a free state- Admits Missouri as a slave state- Bottlenecks slavery to only be in the South (bans slavery north of 36 30 meridian and in new states)

Formation of the Confederate States of America

1861

- Wanted emphasis on states' rights, keep slavery, and abolish agriculture tariffs- After the nullification crisis, some politicians believed secession to be a constitutional right- Wanted to protect their way of life (agrarian, pro-slavery)

Bleeding Kansas

1854-1856

- Conflict between three political parties of Kansas, pro-slavery, Free-Staters, and abolitionists, over popular soverienity- Popular sovereignity became a thing under the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854

- Repeals Missouri Compromise- Created Kansas and Nebraska- All states can have popular sovereignity (each state chooses if they're a free or slave state)- Caused Bleeding Kansas

Buchanan's Presidency

1857-1861

- Lots went wrong- Increase in sectional tensions, Buchanan often only exacerbated them- Dred Scott decision made him unpopular with abolitionists- Opposed tariffs and vetoed multiple infrastructure projects- Panic of 1857: economic depression caused by collapse of a section of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company- Ineffective at addressing sectional tensions and the entirety of the secession

Ostend Manifesto

1854

- USA, Britain, and France meet in Ostend, Belgium to determine how to annex Cuba, but its being controlled by Spain- Determine that US should take Cuba by force if Spain doesn't agree to sell Cuba- The plans are leaked; Northerners think its an attempt to extend slavery (since Cuba is south)

Texas Revolution

1836-1845

- Conflict between American and Mexican settlers in northern Mexico; generally over slavery and immigration- Texas declares itself an independent country after the end of the war- Texas eventually annexed into US

Compromise of 1850

1850

- California admitted as a free state- Texas admitted as slave state (as long as they give up New Mexican lands)- Slave trade banned in Washington DC (but not practice of slavery)- Fugitive Slave Act - slaves must be returned to their owners regardless of if they're in a free or slave state

Confiscation Acts

1861-1862

- Intended to free all slaves in Southern states- "Confiscate" the slaves- Provided legal framework for government to seize "property" used for Confederacy

Fort Sumter

1861

- Starting point of Civil War- Fort Sumter, being a fort instated by the government, was a symbol of the Union, so Confederacy attacked it- Seen as a threat to Northerners, led to all out war instead of compromise- Became symbol of unity for Union

Dred Scott Decision

1857

- Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet Scott, sue US for their freedom and their daughters' freedom- Supreme Court denies them their citizenship, and denies black citizenship as a whole- Supreme Court decrees that Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

1842

- Great Britain and the US fight over the border to Maine and New Brunswick- Also fight over fishing rights in that area- This treaty helped define borders and fishing rights

Fugitive Slave Act

1850

- Said that all escaped slaves must be returned to their owners, regardless of if the slave is in a free or slave state- Angered many abolitionists- Increased North/South tensions, since North seemed unwilling to give Southerners their "property" back

Underground Railroad

1830s-1860s

- Network of people (black and white) to help runaway slaves escape bondage- Initially, the escape was to the North, but after the Fugitive Slave Act, escape become to Canada, where slavery was illegal- Key players: Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, John Brown, Levi Coffin

Abraham Lincoln's Election

1860

- Campaign focused on his honesty and vision for equality- Most Northern states voted for Lincoln- During this election, he had an overall mellow view of slavery (won't abolish it, but believes it's morally wrong)- Caused secession of Confederacy, since they thought Lincoln's election marked the official abolishing of slavery

American Civil War

1861-1865

- war between Confederate States of America and United States of America- Key events: Fort Sumter, Emancipation Proclamation, Battle of Gettysburg/Gettysburg Address, Sherman's March to the Sea, and Appomattox Court House- Emancipatation Proclamation adds moral cause to North winning, not just preserving United States- Led to Reconstruction to reintegrate South into Union again

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

- Declared all slaves, including in rebelling states, are free- Had three main arguments: emancipation has to be gradual, has to pay compensation to landowners, and has to have people's vote

Harriet Beecher Stowe writes "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

1852

- Extremely influential anti-slavery book, one of the most influential abolitionist works- Humanized slaves, showed the impact of forced separation of families, showed cruelty that slaves experienced, showed racial inequality, centered Christianity and morality, and finally, called to action for people to become abolitionists

Gadsden Purchase

1853

- Expanded US territory by buying portion of Mexico (modern day Arizona and New Mexico)- Built to make transcontinental railroad (connect East and West sides of US)

Mexican-American War

1846-1848

- US wants Texas and other, northern Mexico territories- US and Mexico fight for territory; US wins- US gains Texas, California, etc- Connection from Unit 4: this is the reason Henry David Thoreau wrote On Civil Disobidience

Thirteenth Amendment Passed

1865

- Officially abolished slavery- Also outlawed involuntary servitude/peonage- This all was okay as punishment for a crime, however