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Adapted from W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide

Constructing and Developing a Logic Model





Outputs and Outcomes



Inputs and Activities

Broad Overview

Feel free to go through the sections of this module in any order.


A logic model is a systematic and visual way to present and share your understanding of the relationships among the resources you have to operate your program, the activities you plan, and the changes or results you hope to achieve.Go to the next page to read on.

What is a Logic Model?

YOUR INTENDED RESULTS include all of the program’s desired results (outputs, out- comes, and impact). 3. Outputs are the direct products of program activities and may include types, levels and targets of services to be delivered by the program. 4. Outcomes are the specific changes in program participants’ behavior, knowledge, skills, status and level of functioning. Short-term outcomes should be attainable within 1 to 3 years, while longer-term outcomes should be achievable within a 4 to 6 year timeframe. The logical progression from short-term to long-term outcomes should be reflected in impact occurring within about 7 to 10 years. 5. Impact is the fundamental intended or unintended change occurring in organizations, communities or systems as a result of program activities within 7 to 10 years. In the cur- rent model of WKKF grantmaking and evaluation, impact often occurs after the conclu- sion of project funding.

YOUR PLANNED WORK describes what resources you think you need to implement your program and what you intend to do. 1. Resources include the human, financial, organizational, and community resources a program has available to direct toward doing the work. Sometimes this component is referred to as Inputs. 2. Program Activities are what the program does with the resources. Activities are the processes, tools, events, technology, and actions that are an intentional part of the program implementation. These interventions are used to bring about the intended program changes or results.

How to "Read" a Logic Model

Program Evaluation and Strategic Reporting

Program Implementation

Program Design and Planning

Click the lightbulbs to read more!

The Purpose of Logic Models

  • Inputs: Resources and barriers, such as funding and regulations, impact program effectiveness.
  • Activities: The tools, processes, and actions in a program aimed at achieving desired results.
  • Outputs: The quantifiable results of program activities, reflecting the delivery of services and products to the intended audience.
  • Outcomes: Individual-level changes expected from program activities.
  • Impacts: Program-induced changes, including improvements, capacity growth, and policy shifts

As you conceptualize your program, begin by describing your basic assumptions and then add the following program components in the order that they should occur.

Basic Logic Model Components

The processes, techniques, tools, events, technology, and actions of the planned program. These may include products – promotional materials and educational curricula; services – education and training, counseling, or health screening; and infrastructure – structure, relationships, and capacity used to bring about the desired results.

Resources and/or barriers, which potentially enable or limit program effectiveness. Enabling protective factors or resources may include funding, existing organizations, potential collaborating partners, existing organizational or interpersonal networks, staff and volunteers, time, facilities, equipment, and supplies. Limiting risk factors or barriers might include such things as attitudes, lack of resources, policies, laws, regulations, and geography.



Basic Logic Model Components

Organizational, community, and/or system level changes expected to result from program activities, which might include improved conditions, increased capacity, and/or changes in the policy arena.

Specific changes in attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, skills, status, or level of functioning expected to result from program activities and which are most often expressed at an individual level.

The direct results of program activities. They are usually described in terms of the size and/or scope of the services and products delivered or produced by the program. They indicate if a program was delivered to the intended audiences at the intended “dose.” A program output, for example, might be the number of classes taught, meetings held, or materials produced and distributed; program participation rates and demography; or hours of each type of service provided.




Basic Logic Model Components

Online logic model builders like TheoryofChange.org and OutcomeTracker are web-based platforms that offer pre-designed templates and guidance for creating comprehensive logic models. These tools are user-friendly and suitable for both beginners and experienced users, as they streamline the process of developing logic models by providing step-by-step assistance. They often include options for customization, making it easier for individuals and organizations to adapt their models to specific project needs.

Online Logic Model Builders

Lucidchart offers a wide range of templates and shapes specifically designed for building logic models and other types of diagrams. Lucidchart's collaborative features make it a convenient choice for teams working together on program planning and evaluation projects.


Excel and Powerpoint offer a user-friendly interface for organizing and displaying information, making it suitable for simple logic models. While it may not have the advanced features of dedicated logic modeling software, it can be a cost-effective and accessible option for logic model development.

Microsoft Office

Here are a few example applications you can use to create your logic model.

Logic Model Creation Applications






Below is an example template of what your Logic Model graphic might look like.

Graphic Template

Click the examples below to show real-world uses of different logic models.

Real World Examples


Educate and Communicate

Iterative Process

Balance Realism with Aspiration

Focus on Outcomes

Clarity and Simplicity

Use for Program Improvement

Continuous Revision

Involve Stakeholders

Click the dots below for a few tips for creating and utilizing logic models in a professional setting.

Logic Model Tips

Logic models can help program staff and stakeholders clearly understand the program's goals and how they will be achieved. This is particularly valuable for securing support and funding.

The ultimate purpose of the logic model is to track and achieve desired outcomes. Make sure to clearly define and measure outcomes, ensuring they align with the program's mission and objectives.

In Program Design and Planning, a logic model serves as a planning tool to develop program strategy and enhance your ability to clearly explain and illustrate program con- cepts and approach for key stakeholders, including funders. Logic models can help craft structure and organization for program design and build in self-evaluation based on shared understanding of what is to take place. During the plan- ning phase, developing a logic model requires stakeholders to examine best practice research and practitioner experience in light of the strategies and activities selected to achieve results.

While logic models should be aspirational and represent the ideal scenario, they should also be grounded in reality. Set achievable objectives while recognizing challenges.

For Program Evaluation and Strategic Reporting, a logic model presents programinformation and progress toward goals in ways that inform, advocate for a particular pro-gram approach, and teach program stakeholders.We all know the importance of reporting results to funders and to community stakehold-ers alike. Communication is a key component of a program’s success and sustainability.Logic models can help strategic marketing efforts in three primary ways:

  • Describing programs in language clear and specific enough to be understood and evaluated.
  • Focusing attention and resources on priority program operations and key results for the purposes of learning and program improvement.
  • Developing targeted communication and marketing strategies.

Logic model development is an iterative process. It often involves a series of discussions, adjustments, and refinements to accurately capture the program's theory of change.

A logic model is a dynamic tool. Utilize regular updates and revisions to reflect changing circumstances, goals, and outcomes. Regularly review the logic model to ensure it remains aligned with program objectives.

A logic model is not just for reporting or evaluation but also for program improvement. It can help identify areas for enhancement, optimize resource allocation, and inform decision-making within the program.

Keeping the logic model clear and straightforward is vitally important. Avoid jargon and complexity, ensuring that anyone, including those outside the program, can easily understand it.

In Program Implementation, a logic model forms the core for a focused managementplan that helps you identify and collect the data needed to monitor and improveprogramming.Using the logic model during program implementation and management requires you tofocus energies on achieving and documenting results. Logic models help you to considerand prioritize the program aspects most critical for tracking and reporting and makeadjustments as necessary.

Logic models can be adapted for various program types and sizes, making them a versatile tool. They can be tailored for different initiatives, from small community projects to large-scale programs.

Engage with all relevant stakeholders, including program staff, beneficiaries, and funders, in the logic model development process. This ensures that you capture a diverse range of perspectives and insights, enhancing the model's accuracy and relevance.