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Linear Prespective

Linear line work is noticed throughout the painting leading to the top centerpoint of the painting. Can be noticed in: Throughout Venus’ body parts (Example: top of head, chin, shoulders, elbows, wrists, waist, toes, etc.), throughout Mar’s body parts (Example: legs, knees, waist, shoulders, head, etc.), the edge of the forest connected to the ground, throughout the body parts of the various saytars, and leaves.

Overlapping

Overlapping techniques are seen several times creating distance. Venus overlaps Mars, Venus overlaps a playing Saytar, a playing Saytar overlaps Mars’ arm, Mars’ body overlaps two Satyrs, and the object that the three Saytars are playing with overlaps them. The forest also overlaps the field in the horizon.

Indicated by brilliant colors of the pinks and reds in the pillows and blankets. Also has that Tempera powder paint look and has the flatness that comes with tempera (which is clearly shown in the field behind the three satyrs)

Tempera Painting

Atmospheric Perspective

This painting uses atmospheric perspective as the figures and objects in the painting become less clear and detailed to demonstrate the illusion of distance. Venus and Mars, who are portrayed as the “closest” figure, are unarguably the most detailed figures as seen in their fabrics, Venus’ hair, their faces, their hands, Mars’ body and their feet. The three satyrs behind the rest of the figures are noticeably less detailed than Venus and Mars. Finally, in the fields there is very little detail and appears faded to show distance.

SUMMARY/ANALYSIS

In Venus and Mars Sandro Botticelli, the painter, emphasizes the illusion of distance and holds a strong significance in the structure/creation of the painting due the various techniques used to make the painting feel 3 dimensional. This painting is made with tempera paints that notably appears very flat and has a more 2 dimensional feel compared to paintings made with other painting mediums. Most likely due to Botticelli using a flat painting material, it likely prompted Botticelli to use several 3 dimension encouraging techniques. The techniques seen in this painting are, but are not limited to: modeling, atmospheric perspective, overlapping, and linear perspective. Modeling is a shading technique used to create 3 dimensional effects and it’s seen throughout the painting most particularly used on the two main figures (Venus and Mars) where they appear to be the closest to the viewers of the painting. Atmospheric perspective is a technique that makes objects, figures, etc less clear and detailed when trying to make them feel farther away, this is seen in saytars in comparison to Venus and Mar and the fields behind them and the forest. Overlapping is when objects or beings cover other objects or beings which creates depth in a painting. Every figure, except for Venus, is overlapped by another figure and the forest overlaps the field, which makes it feel more like a background. Finally, Linear perspective is seen throughout the painting leading to the top of the painting in the center creating distance. Some examples include but are not limited to: the edge of the forest and various body parts of various figures. With these techniques Botticelli successfully creates a 3 dimensional effect with a strong sense of depthness, despite using a medium that notably gives a flat feel.

Transitions from light to dark colors seen throughout the painting give a three dimensional effect. Modeling is most intensely used in Venus’ gown in the way the fabric falls, drapes, and folds. Modeling is also used in the bodies of the six figures in the painting, however modeling techniques are most heavily used on Venus and Mars and their visible body parts.

Modeling